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StoppingClimateChange.com                                                                                    
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Part 1:  Stopping Climate Change by Replacing Fossil Fuels with Equivalent Biofuels

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Chapter  1.  >

Stopping Climate Change by Replacing Fossil Fuels

1    1.1.0    Introduction to Energy Parks: Carbon Neutralized Fuels for a Carbon Neutral World. 
                
Building an Energy Park
  A typical energy park would provide the electricity, vehicle biofuels, and heating biogas needed by a population of about a natave half-million.
      1.1.1    Part 1 of 7 - Overview - Expanding a typical unneeded coal power plant to be an energy park.
      1.1.2    Part 2 of 7 - Electricity Upgrade.
      1.1.3    Part 3 of 7 - Centralized Natural Gas Carbon Capture Network.
      1.1.4    Part 4 of 7 - Plasma Biomass Gasification.
      1.1.5    Part 5 of 7 - Biomass Synfuels Production
.
      1.1.6    Part 6 of 7 - An Energy Park Powered by Carbon Captured Oil Energy Instead of Carbon Captured Natural Gas
      1.1.7    Part 7 of 7 - An Energy Park Powered by Nuclear Energy Instead of Carbon Captured Natural Gas.

2    Replacing Large Amounts of Individual Fossil Fuels
                 Coal
      1.2.1    Replacing Coal  1,200 of the world's approximately 60,000 coal burning are responsible for about 30% of ALL Climate Change.
      1.2.1.1 Taichung - The World's largest single source of CO2 and the World's largest coal power plant - Located in Taichung, Taiwan.
      1.2.1.2 Big Bend - The World's 260th largest coal power plant - Near Tampa, Florida.
      1.2.1.3 Nuclear Electricity Barge - For coastal cities. 80% of the World's population lives within 60 miles of navigable water.

                 Oil

      1.2.2    Replacing Oil
                 Natural Gas
      1.2.3    Replacing Natural Gas

3    Direct Air CO2 Capture - Removing CO2 From The Air and Putting It In The Ground.
      1.3.1   
Skyscrubber: Nuclear Powered Direct Air Capture of CO2  CO2 recycling beyond biomass.

4    Energy Worlds
      1.4.1    Energy Worlds  - 1.  What would a modern industrialized world powered only by biomass synfuel equivalent biofuels energy look like?

                                           2.  What would a modern industrialized world powered only by Wind, Water, and Solar energy look like?

                                           3.  What would a "Clean and Doable Liquid Fission (LF) Energy Roadmap for Powering Our World" look like?
                                                Visit:  https://atomicinsights.com/clean-doable-liquid-fission-lf-energy-roadmap-%e2%80%a8powering-world/ 

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Part 2:  Gateways to Abundant Clean Energies

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< Chapter  2. >

Advanced Combustion Energy 

1      2.1.0    Advanced Biofuel Energy >   About Advanced Biofuel Energy. http://www.pnnl.gov/news/id=4317
 
        2.1.2
    An Oil Powered Bioenergy Park
                     The challenge is o
btaining sufficient carbon neutral biofuel feedstock for the world's combustion fuels.
        2.1.3   
Plasma Biomass Gasifier  
All biomass - trees, garbage, sewage, etc. - can be decomposed into carbon-neutral CO2 if they are brought into contact with plasma.
 

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<  Chapter  3.  >

Advanced Nuclear Energy

1      3.1.0    Advanced Nuclear Energy >      About Advanced Nuclear Energy.
 
        3.1.1
    A Nuclear Powered Bioenergy Park

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Part 3:  The Era of Carbon Neutralization: Moving to Bioenergy Parks Between now and 2050.

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<  Chapter  4.  > 

The Decarbonization of Electricity

1       4.1.0   Coal to Nuclear - The Decarbonization of Electricity > 
         4.1.1    
What Remains to be Done

2   2017 Existing Coal Plants: Switching from coal to much cleaner high-efficiency combined cycle natural gas.
         4.2.9      Tampa's 'Bayside' old coal power plant conversion/power upgrade as an example.

3   2017 Existing Gas Combined Cycle Plants: Adding carbon capture to new and existing combined cycle natural gas installations
         4.3.1     
HEAT RECOVERY STEAM GENERATORS (HRSGs) WITH INTEGRAL CARBON CAPTURE or MODULAR PACKAGED LIKE HRSGs.
         4.3.2
      Amine Combined Cycle Power Plant - ICCCC Clear - Revised - 1007.jpg  (Used as an example until a dedicated sketch is available).

4   2017 to 2030: Fuel and Emissions Agile Carbon Captured Electricity Concept
 
       4.4.1      Amine Combined Cycle Power Plant - ICCCC Clear - Revised - 1007.jpg

5   Between 2025 and 2050:  Cleaning Up The World's 1,200 Super-Polluting Coal Power Plants.
 
       4.5.1      Coal to Nuclear:  Ending 30% of Climate Change by replacing coal burning steam boilers with small nuclear steam generators.
                     
 http://atomicinsights.com/will-china-convert-existing-coal-plants-nuclear-using-htr-pm-reactors/ 
         Youtube Video:
         4.5.2      coal2nuclear - Background of converting the boilers of coal power plants to nuclear
         4.5.3      Decarbonizing "Taichung", The World's Biggest Source Of CO2
        
4.5.4      Decarbonizing Tampa's 'Big Bend' Coal Power Plant  + Overview, background, and history about molten salt reactors.
         4.5.5      EBASCO's 1 gigaWatt(e) Molten Salt Reactor  A blast from the past
 

                                         4.5.4      Coal to Nuclear Coal Power Plant Strategy  Quickly replacing the world's 6,000 very largest coal burning boilers.

6   2020:  The world's planned new 2,500 new coal plants - perhaps 10,000 individual coal burning boilers - under development.
 
       4.6.1      EM2 Nuclear Barge 250 megaWatt(e) stand-alone power plant.
         Youtube Video:
         4.6.2      Future Coal  Proposed coal power plant build-out in the the developing world is huge, should be replaced with suggested nuclear instead.
         4.6.3      Load Following Nuclear Reactors - To Compliment Wind and Solar's VariabilityWind and solar are very bad electricity ideas that can be made better.  Making the grid reliable again.
         4.6.4      CHP-Ready Reactors  - If we are to replace heating fires, we must be building large CHP systems (Combined Heat and Power) for our large cities.  This means reactors downtown.

7   Other: Replacing the existing coal boiler with a gas or BECCS carbon captured heat recovery steam generator (HRSG)
         4.7.4      Adjustable Emissions Electricity Plant
         4.7.5      100,000 pound per hour, 1,100F, Dual Pressure Sealed Gas Fired High Efficiency Mass Produced Steam Generators.
        
4.7.6      100,000 pound per hour, 1,100F, Dual Pressure Gas or Oil Fired Carbon Captured Mass Produced Steam Generators.
 
       4.7.7      
        
4.7.8        Oxyfuel carbon capturing a small baseload, co-firing coal for peaks, could mean a minimal cost oxyfuel air reduction unit.  Supplementing coal boilers with mass-produced carbon-captured HRSG (Heat Recovery Steam Generator) boilers to dilute coal stack CO2 emissions.
 
       Youtube Video:
This came as a shock for your web site author.  In 1957, he worked as an electrical designer (electronic instrumentation) on Sammis Unit one (near Stratton, Ohio, called Stratton back then).
 http://www.bechtel.com/projects/sammis-air-quality-control/ 
Good article for old coal plants: http://www.powermag.com/coal-power-plant-post-retirement-options/  by Ed Malley, p40, POWER magazine, September, 2016.
 
8   Intermittent Wind Electricity
 
       4.8.1
         Youtube Video:
 
       4.8.2      About wind electricity.
        
4.8.3      Integrating erratic wind electricity into United State's "clock-accurate" electrical grid.

9   Intermittent Solar Electricity
 
       4.9.1
         Youtube Video:
 
       4.9.2      About solar electricity.
         4.9.3      Integrating extremely erratic solar electricity into United State's "must be clock-accurate" electrical grid.

10 Electricity Storage for Intermittent Electricity Sources
         4.10.1    Pumped water storage
         4.10.2    Batteries


                      2. Retrofitting modular natural gas fired carbon capture boiler/exhaust systems to existing coal power plant generation units 300 megaWatts or smaller.
                      3. Using Biofuel Energy Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS) or small nuclear energy for most cogeneration applications.
                      4. Using advanced nuclear micro-reactors to duplicate industrial size fossil fuel fires.

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<  Chapter  5.  >

The Carbon Neutralization of Vehicle and Heating fuels 

1       5.1.1        Advanced Biofuel Energy: The Carbon Neutralization of Combustion Fuels >  A carbon neutral combustion energy economy based upon methanol molecules made out of carbon-neutral CO2.

2       Raw Biofuel-Specific Engines     Making electricity instead of flaring off dirty natural gas in oil fields and landfills, for example.
         5.2.1     Ethane 2-Stroke Diesel Engines
 

3       About Advanced Biofuel Energy

         Youtube Video:

         5.3.1    
How Fire Works
         5.3.2    
Using Nuclear Energy to Make Combustion Fuels From CO2 and Water
         5.3.3    
Obtaining Bio-CO2 In Billion Ton Quantities
         5.3.4    
Using Reactor-powered Westinghouse Plasma Gasification Technology to Reduce Garbage and Sewage to Bio-CO2

4       Manufacturing Liquid Fuels for Vehicle Applications.    

         Youtube Video:

        
5.4.1     An Open Fuel Standard  It would be very cheap to add carbon-neutral methanol fuel capability to our cars in addition to gasoline and ethanol. 
         5.4.2     Manufacturing Methanol to Replace Gasoline
         5.4.3     Manufacturing Dimethyl Ether to Replace Diesel
         5.4.4   Manufacturing Synthetic Carbon-neutral Jet Fuel
         5.4.5   Vehicle Biofuels and Carbon-neutral Fuels
         5.4.6  
Methanol and Other Types of Vehicle and Stationary Fuel Cells
         5.4.7   
Replacing Diesel with More Powerful Carbon-Neutral Dimethyl Ether



         5.4.8   
Stationary Carbon-neutral Fuels

         5.4.9   Recycled CO2 Combustion Fuels    Green Chemistry
         5.4.10   Fuel-agnostic Vehicles
         5.4.11   Vehicle Fuel Fads                                                    
         5.4.12  
Beyond Oil and Gas: The Methanol Economy     The ground-breaking book on vehicle energy fuels by Nobel prize winning chemist Dr. George A. Olah.
        
5.4.13   Carbon Neutral Combustion Fuels   The Hybrid CO2 Energy Park

 

5    Gaseous Fuels for Stationary Applications.

   Manufacturing Carbon-neutral Recycled CO2 Gas Combustion Fuels.

         Youtube Video:
 

         5.5.1   Manufacturing Synthetic Natural Gas
         5.5.2  
Hydrogen Powered Fuel Cells  http://www.fuelcellenergy.com/

6  Depleted Fossil Oil Field Carbon Capture.

                Youtube Video:
 
  
         5.6.1   Depleted Oil Field Carbon Capture  An interim technology to provide abundant economical electricity and investment recovery during the Decarbonization Era.
         5.6.2   Depleted Oil Instead Of Nuclear
         5.6.3   Teaching Example: Hybrid CO2 Energy Park  Both fossil fuel CO2 capture and CO2 extracted directly from the air.

7     Combustion Fuels: From Fossil Fuels to Synthetic Biofuel Fuels.

         Youtube Video:
 

         5.7.1   Carbon-neutral Combustion Fuels  From fossil combustion to carbon-neutral combustion during the Decarbonization Era.

8    Carbon Captured Fossil Fuel Combustion
   


9   Hydrogen as a Fuel  

         5.9.1     Advanced Nuclear: Manufacturing Hydrogen for Fire From Fission
         5.9.2    
Hydrogen As A Large Scale Fuel

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<  Chapter  6.  >

6.1.1   CHP Cogeneration Microgrid Systems for Building Complexes >   
Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Microgrids for large building complexes - about 10% US eat and electricity.

 
          EPA - Catalog of CHP Technologies - Full .pdf  (131 pages)      Combined Heat and Power: A better way to do both fossil and nuclear energy.

2    Green Steam.   BECCS (Biofuel Energy Carbon Capture and Sequestration).

3    
Traditional Power for Almost Every Large College Campus in the U.S.

4    Combined Cycle Cogeneration Microgrid Systems (Providing Both Electricity and Heat to a campus of buildings.) ("Campus" defines a site of multiple buildings of an organization that receives both microgrid electricity and district heating.)
          Youtube Video:
         
6.4.1   About CHP (Green Steam) High Efficiency Combined Cycle Carbon Capture
          6.4.2  
Interfacing Micro Grids and Standard Grids
          6.4.3   Powering a College or University Campus with Carbon Capture or Micro Nuclear Reactors  Nuclear energy can be 2,000 times cheaper than fossil energy.
          6.4.4  
Capitol Building Complex Carbon Capture Project
          6.4.5  
Capitol Nuclear Repowering Project (from Coal to Nuclear web site archive)
          6.4.6  
Building Complex CHP Trigeneration
          6.4.7  
Carbon-negative Cogeneration for Building Complexes
          6.4.8  
CO2-Negative U.S. Capitol Building Complex

          6.4.9   Advanced MICRO Nuclear Reactors for large building complexes
          6.4.10 Mega-Farms and Food Processing Factories


  Cogeneration of Heat and Power (CHP) for Building Complexes


1    6.1.1   CHP Cogeneration Microgrid Systems for Building Complexes >   Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Microgrids for large building complexes - about 10% US eat and electricity.
          EPA - Catalog of CHP Technologies - Full .pdf  (131 pages)      Combined Heat and Power: A better way to do both fossil and nuclear energy.

2    Green Steam.   BECCS (Biofuel Energy Carbon Capture and Sequestration).

3    
Traditional Power for Almost Every Large College Campus in the U.S.

4    Combined Cycle Cogeneration Microgrid Systems (Providing Both Electricity and Heat to a campus of buildings.) ("Campus" defines a site of multiple buildings of an organization that receives both microgrid electricity and district heating.)
          Youtube Video:
         
6.4.1   About CHP (Green Steam) High Efficiency Combined Cycle Carbon Capture
          6.4.2  
Interfacing Micro Grids and Standard Grids
          6.4.3   Powering a College or University Campus with Carbon Capture or Micro Nuclear Reactors  Nuclear energy can be 2,000 times cheaper than fossil energy.
          6.4.4  
Capitol Building Complex Carbon Capture Project
          6.4.5  
Capitol Nuclear Repowering Project (from Coal to Nuclear web site archive)
          6.4.6  
Building Complex CHP Trigeneration
          6.4.7  
Carbon-negative Cogeneration for Building Complexes
          6.4.8  
CO2-Negative U.S. Capitol Building Complex

          6.4.9   Advanced MICRO Nuclear Reactors for large building complexes
          6.4.10 Mega-Farms and Food Processing Factories

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<  Chapter  7.  >

City Residential Energy and Utility Systems

1       7.1.0  City Energy and Utility Systems >
         7.1.1  About City Energy Systems
         7.1.2  Tackling Megacities First

2   Energy, Electricity 
         7.2.1
 City Electricity
         7.2.2  City Electricity Systems
         7.2.3  Carbon-Negative Electricity From Sewage (25.120)

3   Energy, Heating Biogas 
         7.3.1 
City Heating Biogas made from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)
         7.3.2 
DME Fuel for Electricity Generation and as a Household Gas  (Olah, 11.5)
         7.3.3
 City Heating Gas

         7.3.4  City Gas Energy Systems
        
7.3.5  Residential Heating and Cooling  Carbon captured natural gas from heating systems.  70,000 BTU/hr = 20,515 Watts or 98Amps at 220Volts and 0.95 power factor.

4   Water   
         Youtube Videos:
Excellent overview of the world's water issues in general and major desalination technologies.  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2XMRlFMJB-g  

Possibly the best explanation of reverse osmosis you will ever see.  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mZ7bgkFgqJQ
Tampa Bay Water's reverse osmosis desalination plant:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BMK1MmaFYQg
There are about 13,000 desalination plants worldwide.
         7.4.1  Water and Desalination
        
7.4.2  Water - The energy to move water.  The biggest use of electricity in California is moving water.  Can't be done reliably with wind and solar.  
         7.4.3  Smart Cities
         7.4.4  Nuclear Desalinator Barge
                                 
Nuclear Powered Hydrogen Generator To Make Clean Vehicle Fuels  
         7.4.5  http://inhabitat.com/solar-powered-pipe-desalinizes-1-5-billion-gallons-of-clean-drinking-water-for-california/  ?  Speculative?  Show me the water.

 

5   Sewage 
         
7.5.1 City Sewage  Abundant nuclear energy will enable economic advanced sewage treatment to extract carbon-neutral CO2 as a feedstock for fuels.

6   Garbage (Municipal Solid Waste - MSW)  
         
7.6.1  Garbage or MSW   Abundant nuclear energy will enable economic advanced MSW treatment (Plasma Pyrolysis?) to extract carbon-neutral CO2 as a feedstock for fuels.

7   Communications 
         
7.7.1  City Communications
 

 Transportation 
         
7.8.1  City Transportation

         7.8.2  Beyond Traffic 2045 - US DOT

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Part 4:  Beyond Energy Parks

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<  Chapter  8.  >

Energy Efficiency

1       8.1.0    Energy Efficiency > 

2    Energy Efficiency.
         Youtube Video:
         8.2.1 
Energy Efficiency: - Shaping the U.S. Energy System  - James Sweeney, Stanford University


3   Energy Efficiency At Home
         Youtube Video:
         8.3.2  
Energy Efficiency At Home

4  
 

         https://energy.gov/  US Government site about residential energy efficiency.

         https://www.ase.org/about  Alliance to Save Energy is the leading energy efficiency coalition in the United States

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<  Chapter  9.

Population, Resiliency, and Adaptation: Surviving in a Severely Climate Changed World

1          9.1.0     Resiliency and Adaptation: Surviving In A Severely Climate Changed World >

2   Climate Resiliency and Adaptation.
          
Youtube Video:
             9.2.1     Key Document:  Resilience - Opportunities to Enhance the Nation's Resilience to Climate Change - .pdf
 

3   Widespread Crop Failures
          

http://www.ids.ac.uk/idspublication/the-resilience-renaissance-unpacking-of-resilience-for-tackling-climate-change-and-disasters1 

Defining resilience within the context of Climate Change: 

Johns Hopkins Professor Using “Holistic” Approach To Engineer To Improve Disaster Resilience.

The Baltimore Sun (2/12, Pitts) reports on the efforts to Judith Mitrani-Reiser, “a professor of civil engineering at the Johns Hopkins University and a leading expert in the field of disaster resilience,” as she investigates infrastructure problems that cities and town face after natural disasters in hopes finding a “more holistic approach” that will allow areas to better handle the fallout from such events. Mitrani-Reiser examines both what happens to critical buildings and what happens to the “chains of human activity support[ing] the operations of buildings,” noting that “it’s just as important to study how those chains — the human infrastructure — contribute to resilience as it is to study the resilience of the structures themselves.”

 

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What this web site is about. (Click to enlarge.):       The Nuclear-Hydrogen-Biomass Energy System - slides

Areas this web site will focus on to achieve the goal of quickly implementing decarbonization with minimum changes in existing infrastructure:

(A) Replacing oil and natural gas with cheaper synthetic carbon-neutral biofuels by upgrading the world's existing 400+ oil refineries.
(B) Repowering the world's largest 1,200 coal power plants with less expensive heat from disposable molten salt nuclear reactors.
(C) Replacing the world's one million 5 mW(t) or larger industrial fires with packaged combined heat and power (CHP) micro nuclear reactors.
(D) Employing nuclear powered devices (such as Skyscrubber) for extracting large amounts of carbon dioxide from ambient air for feedstock to (1) make syngas biofuels and (2) for direct storage (sequestration) in the ground to reduce total amount of Climate Changing CO2 in the air.

Chapter 2 will introduce the new advanced nuclear energies and the advanced nuclear reactors they will power.

Chapter 3 will introduce advanced combustion energies we can make using nuclear energy, carbon dioxide from air, and hydrogen from water.

Chapters 4, 5, 6, 7, will discuss how we are using fossil fuels in the 4 major energy consumption areas and how new nuclear and carbon-neutral combustion energies can replace them.

Chapter 8 will discuss improving the efficiencies of the energy technologies that convert fuels into useful power will impact our lives.

Chapter 9 will discuss how ample disposable energy will impact population, resiliency, and adaption in a severely climate changed world.

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About: This is an unfunded personal web site by a retired control systems engineer dedicated to educating the public about ending Climate Change by using traditional nuclear reactor energy for community electricity production and to also use advanced (high, and very high, temperature) nuclear energy to synthesize biofuels using the air's carbon-neutral carbon dioxide as feedstock as a way of making carbon-neutral combustion fires available for personal use by all the world's people.  Nothing more. 
All material on this web site was gathered from the internet and is being cited here for educational purposes only without any author's or publisher's knowledge.
Some material has been annotated by this web site's author. Items will be upgraded, replaced, or removed as better material becomes available.

This site's suggestions need to be properly vetted by competent engineering companies such as Bechtel or Fluor before anyone should consider taking these suggestions to the bank. 
The Devil hides in the details. Engineering a detailed preliminary design of a pilot plant for something untried is a good way to vet an idea.

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1980 Honeywell "Alpha-Delta 3,000" large building complex energy management system computer installation engineered by author.