StoppingClimateChange.com                                                                                      3 Power Plant Choices
Home Page     Sitemap      About      Foreword     Summary      The Technology      Footnotes & Links

Site Facilities:     1  Unneeded Old Coal Power Plant      2  New Electricity Generator Building       
Power Plant:       3  Power Plant Choices:     3a  Pilot Plant Power Drop     3b  Carbon Capture Power     REACTORS:     3c  NuScale 550F     3d  ThorCon 1,300F     3e  Terrestrial  1,300F     3f  GA 1,560F

Fuel Feedstock:  4  Hydrogen and Steam Generators      5  Biomass Preparation      6  Plasma Torch Biomass Gasifier     
Refinery:             7  Biosynfuel Refinery      8 Biosynthetic Fuels     
8a Cellulosic E85 BioEthanol     8b Cellulosic M70 BioMethanol     8c Cellulosic BioDiesel     8d Fuel Hydrogen

POWER PLANT CHOICES

BACK

An excellent introduction to advanced nuclear reactors may be obtained from chapter 3 (Advanced Reactor Technology Evaluation) of the recently-released MIT study:
"The Future of Nuclear Energy in a Carbon-Constrained World",

NOW  3a  Pilot Plant - Build 1/5 Scale Plant Consisting Of Carbon-neutral Fuel Technologies 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 To Optimize How They Mesh In Practice
(For grid powered pilot plant, use the existing coal plant grid connection substation in reverse to supply grid level electricity to the energy park pilot plant)
(One must pretend the electricity used by the pilot plant was made by a nuclear reactor, wind farm, or solar garden elsewhere that is attached to the same grid as the pilot plant.)

NOW  3b  Build A Non-nuclear Carbon Captured Fossil Fuel Powered Plant for the Clean Energy Park  

You have now arrived at the threshold of the 4th generation of nuclear reactors. You ain't seen nothing yet. Check out the jumps in reactor temperatures below.
Something new is happening and it's going to take the "non-nuke background" energy writers a while to come to understand what they need to write energy articles about.

However, having said that, not all the modern studies of Molten Salt Reactor component behavior have been completed yet and it would be relatively easy, quicker, and far less costly to get an
equally or more powerful natural gas powered carbon captured combined cycle gas turbine package unit with natural gas exhaust carbon capture columns and CO2 compressors added.
It must be pointed out that natural gas turbine exhausts have substantially less CO2 per cubic meter to capture than coal so the carbon capture columns are going to be big sheet metal silos.
Also, the steam turbine+electricity generator would be deleted and the Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSGs) become Heat Recovery Solar Salt Heaters (HRSSH) for process heat transport instead.

As an 80-year old engineer whose name is on a few electrical drawings for a 1958 "sodium cooled advanced reactor", it looks like writing a carbon captured twin gas turbine purchase order is the way to go until about 2025.

Carbon capture vs. nuclear. The world could have, and should have, begun moving away from fossil fuels as early as the 1950s. Now decarbonizing has become an urgent necessity. It is unlikely that it will be possible to quickly obtain any production versions of the small nuclear reactors listed below before 2035. On the other hand, several post-combustion gas turbine carbon capture designs have been published. They are ready for detailed site construction drawings and cost estimates for a pair of currently marketed mass-produced 50 megaWatt or larger power plant natural gas turbines and their associated electricity generators. The carbon capture equipment could consume as many as 4 acres of plant site.

Natural gas prices should continue to reflect the increasing downward pressure being brought to bear on all fossil fuels.

CO2 disposal. Some of the unneeded coal power plant sites that could be considered to be in acceptable configuration and condition for upgrading to a Clean Energy Park happen to be located directly above underground strata considered an excellent CO2 disposal site. Since safe CO2 disposal can be achieved at these locations by simply drilling a CO2 disposal well on site property, CO2 disposal couldn't be safer, easier, or cheaper.



2022   3c  NuScale Underground Nuclear Reactor    550F Conventional Water Cooled    
http://www.nuscalepower.com/ 
A Better Nuclear Waste Plan >

NuScale is a "Bridge" technology between your grandfather's nuclear reactors and your children's nuclear reactors. Consider the differences between piston engines and jet engines.
(Below: 5 several minute youtube videos about The NuScale Reactor - the first of the next generation nuclear reactors - currently under construction at Idaho National Laboratories.)
1. NuScale website introduction video:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Quw5rC5Vcfc&feature=youtu.be 
 2. Explaining how the NuScale reactor works and how it is different from your grandfather's first early 1950's reactors:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tiXYe4RTgQE 
 3. Jose Reyes, NuScale Technology Officer, Comments: https://www.asme.org/engineering-topics/media/energy/video-small-modular-nuclear-reactors  (youtube)
4. Identifying A NuScale reactor's main components:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F9tmn9LYGjQ
5. Assembling the NuScale's main reactor power module components in the common coolant pool:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wDMsXEur1fs 


2026
   3d  ThorCon Underground Nuclear Reactor    1,300F Molten Salt Cooled    http://thorconpower.com/  
 A Better Nuclear Waste Plan >

2030   3e  Terrestrial Energy Underground Nuclear Reactor    1,300F Molten Salt Cooled    https://www.terrestrialenergy.com/ 
A Better Nuclear Waste Plan >


2024
  3f  General Atomics SiGA EM2 Underground Nuclear Reactor    1,560F Hydrogen Gas Cooled    http://www.ga.com/advanced-reactors  
A Better Nuclear Waste Plan >
 

NuScale is a U.S. Light Water Reactor (LWR) (conventional reactor), 50 megaWatt(e) Extra Safe "Bridge" Reactor.  
ThorCon, U.S. company, designed it's dual 250 megaWatt(e) modules to be fabricated in Korean automated shipyard, the first unit to be assembled and run in Indonesia, is based on the 1965 8 megaWatt Oak Ridge Molten Salt that ran uneventfully for about 5 years. ThorCon thinks the Nuclear Regulatory Commission might have done a better job in the past.
Terrestrial Energy (Canada) 190 megaWatt(e)
General Atomics (U.S.) has been doing very leading-edge reactor development since 1960. 265 megaWatt(e). Many university teaching reactors came from GA.

 

          
https://analysis.nuclearenergyinsider.com/                            http://www.greencarcongress.com/2018/08/20180810-hitemmp.html 

(Left) Nuclear Energy Websites               (Right) Future Application Operating Temperatures

Information about new small reactors: http://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/nuclear-fuel-cycle/nuclear-power-reactors/small-nuclear-power-reactors.aspx

International Atomic Energy Agency:  https://www.iaea.org/ 

U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission:  https://www.nrc.gov/about-nrc/history.html

Canada:  http://www.cnl.ca/en/home/news-and-publications/news-releases/2017/cnl-releases-summary-report-on-small-modular-react.aspx 

 

A lot of tech-savvy millennials have seen through the wishful thinking surrounding using only wind and solar energy to power mankind's future.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Integral Carbon Capture

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Canada:  http://www.cnl.ca/en/home/news-and-publications/news-releases/2017/cnl-releases-summary-report-on-small-modular-react.aspx 

        Items and issues extracted from the above Canadian report:

SMALL MODULAR REACTORS UNDER DEVELOPMENT - These categories are distinguished primarily by their fuel and/or coolant properties:

1. Pressurized Water-cooled Reactors (PWR)                    (Modern SMR bridge versions of today's large water-cooled reactors.)
2.
High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGR)            
3. Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors (SFR)
4.
Lead-cooled Fast Reactors (LFR) 
5. Gas-cooled Fast Reactors (GFR)
6.
Molten Salt Reactors (MSR)
7. Fusion Reactors

SMRs COULD BE APPLIED TO APPLICATIONS BEYOND ELECTRICITY:

           Application                             Rank
1. District heating                              - #2
2. Industrial process heat                   - #5
3. Hydrogen production                      - #1
4.
Synfuel production
5. Heavy oil recovery
6. Petrochemical refining
7. Desalination                                 - #3
8. Oxygen production
9.
Energy storage                             - #4 Coupling with energy storage
10. Marine propulsion
11. Isotope production
12. Recycling of spent fuel to reduce current spent fuel volume and liability
13. Community infrastructure and services, such as greenhouses, wide-band internet for medical and educational use, and aquaculture

 

OTHER ISSUES INCLUDE:

1. Operation beyond electricity generation
2. Simple design and operation
3. Quick deployment
4. Well understood and quantified risks
5. Reactor must be transportable
6. Schedules must be accurate and predictable
7.
Off-grid reactors must have the capability for remote monitoring
8.
Designs must be standardized
9. Designs must be scalable
10. Must have minimal staffing requirements
11.
Early consideration and incorporation of safeguards issues, especially for novel designs
12.
Option to recycle current spent fuel inventories for use as a fuel source

And, with the nuclear industry struggling to compete against low-cost natural gas generation, the birthplace of nuclear reactors, Idaho National Laboratories, is stepping up a search for ways to lower existing reactor operating costs, research on "accident tolerant" reactor fuels for existing water cooled reactors, i.e., developing safer fuel rod cladding than the zirconium that has been traditionally used, designing more efficient control rooms and using technology to reduce reactor safety inspection time and costs.

Small Modular Reactor (SMR) consortium:    http://smrstart.org/     About SMRs:   http://smrstart.org/news-and-resources/   SMR Economics 

 

According to the American think tank Third Way, there are presently five SMRs in development in the US:
Global list of Small Modular Reactors (SMRs): http://www.uxc.com/smr/uxc_SMRList.aspx 

NuScale Power, Corvallis, Oregon   http://www.nuscalepower.com/ 
Radix Power and Energy Corp, Setauket, New York   http://www.uxc.com/smr/   
Holtec, Jupiter, Florida   http://www.holtecinternational.com/productsandservices/smr/ 
Westinghouse, Fulton, Missouri   http://www.westinghousenuclear.com/New-Plants/Small-Modular-Reactor 
General Atomics, San Diego, California   http://www.ga.com/energy-multiplier-module
 




http://terrestrialenergy.com/ 

http://starcorenuclear.ca/#!/welcome/ 


http://www.dunedinenergy.ca/ 

http://www.generalfusion.com/ 

 

NuScale is expected to file the first full design license application for a small modular reactor (SMR) later this year. The Oregon based developer was an early mover in the design licensing process, starting its NRC design certification pre-application project back in 2008. NuScale plans to submit its license application in late 2016 under a DoE funding agreement which will provide the firm with $217 million towards the design certification application and other commercialization engineering, analysis and testing.

NuScale is the largest single recipient of DoE funding for SMR licensing and development and the governments support mechanism requires the group to execute testing programs in support of design development and NRC review requirements. - - - Nuclear Energy Insider, Jan 12, 2016

Large energy, no matter if it is coal, natural gas, oil, or nuclear energy, must have government licensing.  Example:  Boiler License Example - Permit Extract - Los Angeles .pdf

How nuclear energy can be used to replace fossil fuel energies

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 


https://motherboard.vice.com/en_us/article/a374p8/nuclear-energy-programs-rarely-lead-to-nuclear-weapons 
Yes and No.  Missing from above are the significant WWII nuclear countries Germany, U.K., U.S., Russia.
Water cooled solid uranium power reactors are used to make excellent weapons-grade plutonium.

 

Reactor Coolants


Common materials considered for heat transport in molten salt reactors.

 

(Above) Different common materials for cooling high neutron flux reactor cores.

 

(Below) Different common materials used for core radiation flux shielding.

Ten times a halving thickness is considered a practical minimal shield.

 

A composite of several different shields is more effective.

(Above) Notice how interfacing layers of water, steel (a poor radiation shield), and some lead are used to provide excellent radiation containment in a small space.
You will have to use your imagination to come up with a reason why anyone would do this.

 

Nuclear Energy's Radiation Realities

There are many very old nuclear scientists and engineers. They got that way because they KNEW what they were doing.  Most are non-smokers.
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiation_hormesis      If you don't know what you are doing - DON'T DO IT!

People who work around radioactivity always wear pocket radiation detectors called Dosimeters ( https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dosimeter )  along with photographic film dosimeters to monitor their accumulated exposure to ionizing radiation. 

(Personal note.) My Cell Biologist wife wore dosimeters for all of her 34 year career in medical research - she used radioactive tritium tracer molecules (uptake of tritiated thymidine, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thymidine ) as a way to trace the movement of medicines to and through living cells.)

(Above) ThorCon's Underground Reactor Equipment Layout.

Running reactors make a lot of neutron radiation. Locating running nuclear reactors deep in the ground away from people makes more sense than the shielded above ground reactors often built by the nuclear electricity industry. 
The one academic research reactor the author has personally seen was under water, deep underground, in the middle of a University Campus in the middle of a Midwest town.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ford_Nuclear_Reactor  

NuScale has a similar below-grade enclosure that includes water.
Water is one of the best radiation barriers - about 3 feet will stop anything.

 

The Three Common Forms Of Radiation

 


Stay as far away as possible and behind the best shielding possible from anything that is even slightly radioactive.

The Containment Wall Used In Current Nuclear Reactor Facilities.

 

Hormesis is often considered in conjunction with improving a healthy person's immune system.

Interestingly, low levels of radiation help to keep immune systems "tuned up", thereby protecting people from cancer and other mutations. 
(Mother nature uses Cosmic and Solar radiation.)

 

Safe-to-Unsafe Radiation Energy Spectrum  (In milliSeverts)

 

Hormesis Symbol

 

See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiation_hormesis

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -