Chapter: Nuclear Powered Syngas Biofuels Refinery
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Stopping Climate Change by replacing fossil fuels with equivalent biofuels.

The Replacing Fossil Fuels Idea - slides

Decarbonization Between 2030 and 2050

Nuclear energy is not just for electricity.  Nuclear energy can solve the entire fossil fuel problem causing climate change.

Energy Park: Electricity + Biomass Synfuels, Powered by Nuclear Energy.

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Everyone understands how nuclear energy can replace the coal energy that is being used to make electricity. 

Energy scientists also understand how to use nuclear's energy to synthesize carbon-neutral equivalents of the other fossil fuels - oil and natural gas - to end the remainder of Climate Change.

Achieving "Carbon-neutrality".

The banner above could be described as a tableau-like graphic presentation of the main components involved: (1,) Using plant leaves to capture (2,) carbon dioxide (CO2) molecules from (3,) the air. This captured CO2 is then used as feedstock by a (4,) nuclear reactor powered (5,) synthesizing refinery to make (6,) electricity (7,) carbon-neutral synthetic biomethane natural gas, and (8,) carbon-neutral synthetic biomethanol - a "drop-in" replacement for gasoline.

After burning, the CO2 produced by the biofuels would return to the air to be recaptured again later by plants to be re-used again as feedstock for manufacturing more synthetic combustion fuel.

In 2006, Nobel Prize winning energy chemist, Dr. George A. Olah, published his influential book:
"Beyond Oil and Gas: The Methanol Economy."

Dr. Olah and his co-authors explored the different fuels that could be made from captured carbon dioxide;    
how they would be made, their advantages, shortcomings, and potential problems.    

In 2007, Dr. Forsberg, a chemist and nuclear scientist from MIT and Oak Ridge Laboratories, prepared a slide show and academic paper to present this concept to a group of chemists.

  Nuclear-Hydrogen-Biomass System - Slides - Dr Charles W. Forsberg .pdf 
 Nuclear-Hydrogen-Biomass System - Paper - Dr Charles W. Forsberg .pdf

Conclusion: There is sufficient biomass to meet U.S. liquid-fuel needs
if the energy and hydrogen inputs for biomass-to-fuel processing plants are provided by advanced nuclear energy.


Using Fossil Fuel Now Instead Of Nuclear Fuel 15 Years From Now

NOTE: It is this web site's position that carbon-captured and sequestered oil or natural gas could provide the same temperatures and quantities of clean energy as advanced nuclear. We do not have to wait another 10 years or so for the development work on the current family of advanced nuclear reactors to be completed.

We can begin engineering and prototyping a Hybrid CO2 Energy Park immediately, using carbon captured fossil heat instead of nuclear heat.

These days, there are many idle 100 to 200 megaWatt coal plant sites like the one below that would throw open their doors to such an opportunity.

The Midwest plant below happens to be sitting on both depleted oil fields and carbon sequestration salt beds several further miles straight down. No need to build CO2 disposal pipelines. And depleted, but useable, crude oil means very cheap energy.

How it works.
Synthetic Fuels: 
How Plasma Torch Pyrolyzation Works:

Alter Plasma, Canada, (Westinghouse): Overview Video 6m
Alter Plasma, Canada, (Westinghouse): Overview Video 9m:  Up to 3,360°F high temperature heating rods for slag handlers.

Instead of just burning the carbon-neutral syngas to make a little electricity while disposing of city garbage - something nuclear can do much cheaper and cleaner - this web site is suggesting we use the carbon-neutral syngas as feedstock to replace fossil oil and fossil natural gas.

Example: The Dimethyl Ether (DME) molecule. Note the high number of energy-carrying hydrogens.   

Biodimethyl ether, a more powerful replacement for diesel (higher Cetane rating) that has the physical properties of propane and can also replace propane as biopropane.

DME is a promising fuel in diesel engines,[12] petrol engines (30% DME / 70% LPG), and gas turbines. For diesel engines, an advantage is the high cetane number of 55, compared to that of diesel fuel from petroleum, which is 40–53.[13] Only moderate modifications are needed to convert a diesel engine to burn dimethyl ether. The simplicity of this short carbon chain compound leads during combustion to very low emissions of particulate matter, NOx, and CO.

For these reasons as well as being sulfur-free, dimethyl ether meets even the most stringent emission regulations in Europe (EURO5), U.S. (U.S. 2010), and Japan (2009 Japan).[14] Mobil uses dimethyl ether in their methanol to gasoline process. [citation needed]

Dimethyl ether is being developed as a synthetic second generation biofuel (BioDME), which can be manufactured from lignocellulosic biomass.[15] Currently the EU is considering BioDME in its potential biofuel mix in 2030;[16] the Volvo Group is the coordinator for the European Community Seventh Framework Programme project BioDME[17][18] where Chemrec's BioDME pilot plant based on black liquor gasification is nearing completion in Piteć, Sweden.[19]

In 2009 a team of university students from Denmark won the Urban Concept/Internal Combustion class at the European Shell Eco Marathon, an unofficial World Championship for mileage, with a vehicle running on 100% dimethyl ether. The vehicle drove 589 km/liter, (1,384 miles/gallon), fuel equivalent to gasoline with a 50 cc 2-stroke Diesel engine.
As well as winning, they beat the old standing record of 306 km/liter, set by the same team in 2007.[20]




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2  Very High Temperature Nuclear Reactor (VHTR), A Small Modular Reactor (SMR)  Small Modular Reactor (SMR) association web site. 
This appears to be an association of low-temperature (550°F SMR) conventional water cooled reactor companies, not the 1,700°F SMR helium cooled reactor above, nor the 1,300°F SMR molten salt cooled reactors capable of directly replacing the coal boilers in the world's largest 1,200 coal power plants that are making almost 1/3 of all Global Warming CO2.

These are all companies working to minimize the steam explosion potential of conventional 550°F water cooled reactors but the uses of these reactors in the broader context of stopping the growth of Climate Change is limited when compared to higher temperature reactors.


3  Nuclear Powered Thermochemical Hydrogen and Oxygen Plant

Excellent overview slide show:  Hydrogen Production Using Thermochemical Technology .pdf


Very high temperature custom industrial process furnaces:  © 2017 Carbolite Gero Ltd., UK


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5  Biomass Grinder and Cleanup Chain


6  Plasma Torch Biomass Gasifier

 Why plasma gasification was picked. You can get an idea of the performance of plasma gasification of biomass
from this paper by Czech Republic Milan Hrabovsky, Institute of Plasma Physics, ASCR: 
Thermal Plasma Gasification - 19.316.pdf  also:  

                     How Plasma Torch Pyrolyzation Works:
                     Alter Plasma (Westinghouse):
                     Alter Overview Video:    


S  Skyscrubber - A machine to pull CO2 directly from the air to make carbon-neutral biofuels in the event natural biomass is not sufficient.


(Above) 1 of a ring of ten 66 foot long contactor modules. Note extraction huts below. Using original chemicals, 1 million tons of CO2 per year would be extracted from the air. The author's nuclear design would have a very high temperature reactor (VHTR) and single large extraction facility in the center of the ring of modules. Pipes would carry liquefied CO2 to a railroad siding next to the ring.


7  Small Refinery To Synthesize Carbon-neutral Biofuels


(Above) A direct biomass process being suggested in Germany.  Their problem is they are using biomass for heat.

The key point is: "You can't burn biomass to make biofuels".  There isn't enough biomass for both. 
The BECCS example below shows what happens when you try.


8  Carbon-neutral Biofuels This Small Refinery Might Make
    Methanol, Gasoline, Diesel, Dimethyl Ether



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Global Map of Depleted Oil Fields.


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