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8a Cellulosic E85 BioEthanol     8b Cellulosic M70 BioMethanol     8c Cellulosic BioDiesel     8d Fuel Hydrogen

SYNTHETIC CELLULOSIC E85 BioEthanol 
as gasoline replacement is JOB #1

Why?

Burning food crops [like corn] to produce biofuels is a crime against humanity
https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/poverty-matters/2013/nov/26/burning-food-crops-biofuels-crime-humanity 

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SYNTHETIC CELLULOSIC FUEL ETHANOL

 

Current bioethanol plants use fossil fuels for their heat.  By heating with "smart dual-fuel" nuclear electricity + natural gas boilers they can go much cleaner.

In the United States, the ethanol fuel industry is based largely on corn. According to the Renewable Fuels Association, as of 30 October 2007, 131 grain ethanol bio-refineries in the United States have the capacity to produce 7.0 billion US gallons (26,000,000 m3) of ethanol per year. An additional 72 construction projects underway (in the U.S.) can add 6.4 billion US gallons (24,000,000 m3) of new capacity in the next 18 months.

Over time, it is believed that a material portion of the ≈150-billion-US-gallon (570,000,000 m3) per year market for gasoline will begin to be replaced with fuel ethanol.[41]  - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethanol 

                                                                               Production from Carbon-neutral (Cn) Captured CO2 Carbon:
(4), one gallon of Cn corn-equivalent synthetic carbon-neutral ethanol  
https://www.betalabservices.com/biofuels/synthetic-ethanol.html   
      Corn Ethanol Energy Balance:                                                              https://www.usda.gov/oce/reports/energy/2008Ethanol_June_final.pdf    

 

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Trying to get a handle on the size of the U.S. ethanol instead of gasoline market using biotechnology to make the ethanol:

Comparing 2004 Gasoline and (Ethanol Equivalents) in Billions of Gallons
(All below from 2004 "21 Century Cellulosic Ethanol, Biomass, and Biofuels")

Gasoline                Ethanol Equivalent

U.S. consumption, 2004:                                                                                                     139                         (200)
About 60% from imports:                                                                                                     83                         (120)
Requirements to displace 30% of 2004 U.S. consumption:                                                   42                         (60)
Biomass requirements at 80 gal/ton:                                                                                                                     750 Million ton
Land requirements at 10 ton/acre and 80 gal/ton:                                                                                                    75 Million acre
Numbers of refineries at 100 Million gal/refinery:                                                                                               600 (each requiring 160 square miles net or 125,000 acres)

Benefits of Biofuels:
Biofuels, especially corn-derived and cellulosic ethanol, constitute the only renewable liquid transportation fuel option that can be integrated readily with petroleum-based fuels, fleets, and infrastructure. Production and use of biofuels can provide substantial benefits to national energy security, economic growth, and environmental quality.

Cellulose, Hemicellulose, and Lignin Content in Various Sources of biomass:

Feedstock / Cellulose / Hemicellulose / Lignin

Corn stover: 36.4 / 22.6 / 16.6

Wheat straw: 38.2 / 24.7 / 23.4

Rice straw: 34.2 / 24.5 / 23.4

Switchgrass: 31.0 / 24.4 / 17.6

Poplar: 49.9 / 20.4 / 18.1

Source: A. Wiselogel, S. Tyson, and D Johnson, "Biomass Feedstock Resources and Composition," pp. 105-18.

 

An Alternative Route for Biomass to Ethanol: Microbial Conversion of Syngas:

Biomass can be gasified to produce syngas (mostly a mixture of CO and H2). Perhaps surprisingly, syngas has been shown to be converted by certain microbes into products including ethanol (Klasson et al. 1990; Gaddy 2000). These microbes are not well understood, but the process has been taken to small pilot scale. The attraction of this alternative approach to bioethanol is the the theoretical yield is quite high since all the biomass potentially is available as syngas for anaerobic fermentation. This gives theoretical yields greater than 130 gallons per dry ton of biomass.

Background:

[Non-Plasma] Gasification is a combination of pyrolysis and combustion reactions for converting a solid material, such as biomass, to a gasified product (syngas). Gasification is a robust and traditional technology, yet not extensively implemented.

Biopower can use this syngas as a fuel for power production. Once sulfur compounds have been removed, this gas can be converted to other products through catalytic Fisher-Tropsch reactions at high temperatures and pressures. However, these precious-metal catalysts for gas-to-liquid conversion have been explored for over 50 years with incremental improvements. Biocatalysts for some conversion methods are relatively unstudied, operating in aqueous media with the syngas bubbled past at ambient temperature and pressures and representing a strong alternative to traditional catalysis.

Challenges:

How do these biocatalysts carry out transformation that otherwise work only with precious metals at high temperature and pressure? Which enzymes and molecular machines allow [enable] these transformations? Can increased understanding of these protein structure-function relationships aid development of either better biocatalysts or insights to improved inorganic metal catalysts?

Trial and error experimentation has shown that process conditions and reactor design will shift the microorganisms to higher product yields. This is the fundamental and unexplored biological question: How does the regulation of the fermentation pathway allow these environmental shifts (e.g., pH, and medium composition) to induce higher yields?

Syngas Status in Industry:

Bioengineering Resources, Inc. ( http://www.brienergy.com/ ) is a small company developing and soon to be demonstrating its pilot syngas bioethanol process (EERE 2005; BRI Energy 2006). The University of Oklahoma has assembled an integrated gasification and biology program; however, rates remain slow and are limited by the fundamental biology and mass transfer (Klasson et al. 1990).

(End of quotes from 2004 publication "21 Century Cellulosic Ethanol, Biomass, and Biofuels")

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6 Conclusions

This analysis shows that biomass-derived ethanol from a thermochemical conversion process continues to show the potential to be cost-competitive with gasoline. The gasoline equivalent price by higher heating value is $3.11 per gallon, not including retail taxes, tax credits, or costs for distribution, blending, and marketing. The sensitivity analysis shows there is less than 20% prediction uncertainty in MESP resulting from a 30% uncertainty in the total capital cost estimation. While there is always a chance of large escalations in capital costs, acquisition of recent estimates and vendor quotes for most of the equipment reduces the probability of gross over- or under-estimation of costs. All processes used in the plant design are commercially available with the exception of the gasifier and tar reformer. Experimental results continue to approach the 2012 technical targets (details in Appendix I), meaning that the predictions presented in this report are closer to practice than those of the previous report published in 2007. Bench-scale experiments have shown that, in areas like methane conversion, actual performance can surpass the technical targets, resulting in reduced actual costs.

Process Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol

Thermochemical Pathway by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis

A. Dutta, M. Talmadge, and J. Hensley

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

Golden, Colorado

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Oil refinery in Texas. They can add small underground nuclear reactors to manufacture biosynfuels from air's CO2 and water's Hydrogen (H2).

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Footnotes & Links

The biosynfuel processes being examined here are both existing and new territory with the material below providing some insight on how they might be designed.

 

             

Emissions are not just about carbon dioxide (CO2). In addition to being fire hazards forever, batteries make a whole bunch of environment-damaging emissions also.
Carbon-neutral replacement fuels take advantage of all the combustion emission achievements that took so much time and money to develop in the past.

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Footnotes & Links

This website is a draft. The candidate document's footnote numbers go with a private database. Copy the document's title and submit it to Google. The document may still be posted on the Internet.

https://enerkem.com/facilities/enerkem-alberta-biofuels/ 

 

2.806 ----- Production of Hydrogen and Synthesis Gas by High Temperature Electrolysis
2.807 ----- Bringing biofuels on the market - Options to increase EU biofuels volumes
2.808 -----
2.809 ----- Bio-Methane and Bio-hydrogen
2.810 ----- Methanol - The Basic Chemical and Energy Feedstock of the Future - Index Only
2.811 ----- Alternative Energy and Feedstock Sources in the Current Chemical Landscape - the Methanol Perspective
2.812 ----- Application of Power to Methanol Technology to Integrated Steelworks for Profitability and CO2 Reduction
2.813 ----- A Novel Condensation Reactor for CO2 to Methanol Conversion for Storage of Renewable Electric Energy
2.814 ----- European chemistry for growth - Unlocking a competitive, low carbon and energy efficient future
2.815 ----- Evaluation of Co-Gasification of Black Liquor and Pyrolysis Liquids from a National Systems Perspective
2.816 ----- CO2 as Feedstock
2.817 ----- Production of Bio-methanol
2.818 ----- Biocatalytic Conversion of Methane to Methanol as a Key Step for Development of Methane-based Biorefineries
2.819 ----- Methanol as an alternative transportation fuel in the US - MIT
2.820 ----- Petrochemical Outlook - Challenges and Opportunities - Prepared for EU-OPEC Dialogue - Slide Presentatio
2.821 ----- China's use of fuel methanol and implications on future energy trends
2.822 ----- The Methanol Story - A Sustainable Fuel for the Future
2.823 ----- The Future of Methanol Fuel - An analysis on the feasibility of methanol as an alternative fuel
2.824 ----- Methanol as a New Energy Carrier

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News Notes