8  Biosynthetic Fuels
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Site Facilities:     1  Unneeded Old Coal Power Plant      2  New Electricity Generator Building       
Power Plant:       3  Power Plant Choices      3a  Pilot Plant Power Drop      3b  Carbon Capture Power     REACTORS:     3c  NuScale 550°F     3d  ThorCon 1,300°F     3e  Terrestrial  1,300°F     3f  GA 1,560°F

Fuel Feedstock:  4  Hydrogen and Steam Generators      5  Biomass Preparation      6  Plasma Torch Biomass Gasifier     
Refinery:             7  Biosynfuel Refinery      8 Biosynthetic Fuels     
8a Cellulosic E85 BioEthanol     8b Cellulosic M70 BioMethanol     8c Cellulosic BioDiesel     8d Fuel Hydrogen


8a Cellulosic E85 BioEthanol                 8b Cellulosic M70 BioMethanol                8c Cellulosic BioDiesel                8d Fuel Hydrogen


Where is all that cellulosic biofeedstock going to come from?     2016_billion_ton_report_12.2.16_0.pdf   (448 pages)

Good casual overview: 


The world produces and consumes about 100 million barrels of oil per day - or about 36,500 million (36.5 billion) barrels of oil per year. Since the standard 42 gallon barrel of oil weighs 275 pounds - or about 0.138 tons (275lbs per barrel / 2000lbs per ton = 0.138tons per barrel), this means the world is burning about 5 billion tons of oil per year (36.5 billion barrels * 0.138 tons/barrel).

The United States consumes about 20 million barrels of oil per day - or about 7.3 billion barrels of oil per year - or about 1 billion tons of oil per year. So the report above has us covered.

(As always, the Devil is in the details.)

And the above is just from tree trimmings, etc. Also "Metropolitan Solid Waste or MSW", better known as city garbage, city and septic tank sewage, feedlot agricultural waste, "Black Liquor" boiler fuel from paper mills (they can use the tiny nuclear reactors instead for heat and electricity). Since we're running on nuclear heat, in case we have too much water in the plasma torch mix, drying things out without too much cost or emissions should be feasible.    [PDF]Alter NRG Plasma Gasification:     




(Left) Carbon Dioxide produced per million British Thermal Units (BTU) of heat.                       (Right) Combustion Fuel Candidates         

How to think about replacing the fossil fuels that have served mankind so well for so long?

Job #1: Replace coal with nuclear. (The worst at 206 pounds of CO2 per million BTU.)
Job #2: Replace oil with cellulosic biosynthetic combustion fuels. (161 pounds of CO2 per million BTU.)
Job #3: Replace natural gas with biosynthetic hydrogen heating gas. (117 pounds of CO2 per million BTU.)

As you can see from above, wood (cellulose) is really loaded with carbon-neutral carbon that can make a lot of biosynthetic liquid fuel per BTU. This is why your author selected the electrically powered plasma gasification column instead of the autothermal incinerating gasifiers.  Captured CO2 in cellulose is too damn valuable to burn.


Replacing coal with nuclear to make electricity is the easy part.

Replacing oil and heating gas with CO2-neutral biosynthetic fuels is the hard part. How much will we need to make?

We will need about 8,000 or so Clean Energy Park facilities like the one this website is talking about to replace coal (with nuclear) and oil (with biosynfuels). This website's facility is limited by it's plasma torch column to gasifying a maximum of 200 tons of cellulosic biomass per day. It has to share it's 500 megaWatt(e) nuclear electricity generator with a thermochemical hydrogen generator and whatever electrical and thermal energy the catalytic biosynfuel refinery requires along with the electricity demand of the park's nearby cities.

There is a diversity factor over the plant's 24 hour/7day per week operating cycle that may make predictable peak energies available:

(Above) A ThorCon dual reactor installation is good for 250 + 250 megaWatts maximum. Not all that big when you consider the heat load presented by
chemical water splitting and energy needed to control catalytic hydrocarbon molecule joining. Fortunately, both hydrogen and oxygen can be stored for later use.

Looks like making biosynfuels will be a night job for the ThorCons.

INFRA and Greenway to partner on GTL plants

Greenway Technologies Inc. and INFRA Technology LLC, through its wholly-owned subsidiary, Greenway Innovative Energy (GIE), have signed a non-exclusive Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) to jointly design and deliver Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) plants combining their respective proprietary technologies: INFRA’s xtl and GIE’s G-Reformer.

INFRA Technology group has developed and patented a proprietary Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) technology (INFRA.xtl), based on the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis process, for the production of light synthetic oil—which is close to a product, characterized by Shultz-Flory alpha of 0.77—and clean liquid synthetic transportation fuels from natural and associated gas, as well as from biomass and other fossil fuels (XTL).

INFRA has commissioned its own production of the proprietary Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. Production capacity is up to 30 tons per year. 

GIE has developed and patented a transportable, scalable and economic converter for synthesis gas generation needed to feed an F-T reactor called the G-Reformer.

In addition to these necessary components, building GTL plants requires the leadership and financial discipline of an Engineering Procurement Contractor (EPC) to deliver on-time and on-budget build programs. GIE has been working with Audubon Engineering for several years and named the company its EPC firm in 2018.

The agreement addresses the need to process various natural gas streams into liquid fuels. There are worldwide initiatives underway to reduce the amount of flared and vented gases which waste valuable natural resources and contribute to CO2 emissions.

By combining the capabilities of both companies, the time to deploy plants capable of processing flared or vented gas will be reduced. GTL systems from the companies can also be used to process coal and biomass assets providing the ability to convert these natural gas streams into useable products including diesel, gasoline, and jet fuel. These fuels, derived from natural gas, will be incrementally cleaner than similar petroleum-based fuels.

Currently, INFRA’s team is performing start-up operations on a 100 bpd demonstration plant (M100) located in Wharton, Texas. The company’s plant will convert natural gas to SynCrude, with components of diesel, gasoline, and jet fuel. This demonstration plant has a modular design that will allow integration of other components for testing, such as the G-Reformer technology from GIE, and the catalysts that produce varying fractional amounts of end-product for sale.

This plant also provides the scalable design baseline for larger plants and serves as an economic model for the technology, process, and design proof.





Footnotes & Links

This website is a draft. The candidate document's footnote numbers go with a private database. Copy the document's title and submit it to Google. The document may still be posted on the Internet. 


The low quantity of fossil fuel required to produce cellulosic ethanol (and thus reduce fossil GHG emissions) is due largely to three key factors.

First is the yield of cellulosic biomass per acre. Current corn-grain yields are about 4.5 tons/acre. Starch is 66% by weight, yielding 3 tons to produce 416 gal of ethanol, compared to an experimental yield of 10 dry tons of biomass/acre for switchgrass hybrids in research environments (10 dry tons at a future yield of 80 gal/ton = 800 gal ethanol). Use of corn grain, the remaining solids (distillers’ dried grains), and stover could yield ethanol at roughly 700 gal/acre. Current yield for nonenergy-crop biomass resources is about 5 dry tons/acre and roughly 65 gal/ton. The goal for energy crops is 10 tons/acre at 80 to 100 gal/ton during implementation.

Second, perennial biomass crops will take far less energy to plant and cultivate and will require less nutrient, herbicide, and fertilizer.

Third, biomass contains lignin and other recalcitrant residues that can be burned to produce heat or electricity consumed by the ethanol-production process.




News Notes