3b, Coal or Lignite Syngas Allam Cycle CCS Power Plant
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Coal, Lignite (or, possibly, Biomass) Syngas Allam Cycle CCS Power Plant
Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership: 




Switchgrass Biomass

Thermal energy applications for switchgrass appear to be closer to near-term scale-up than cellulosic ethanol for industrial or small-scale applications. For example, switchgrass can be pressed into fuel pellets that are subsequently burned in pellet stoves used to heat homes (which typically burn corn or wood pellets).[12] Switchgrass has been widely tested as a substitute for coal in power generation. The most widely studied project to date has been the Chariton Valley Project in Iowa.[31] The Show-Me-Energy Cooperative (SMEC) in Missouri[32] is using switchgrass and other warm-season grasses, along with wood residues, as feedstocks for pellets used for the firing of a coal-fired power plant. In Eastern Canada, switchgrass is being used on a pilot scale as a feedstock for commercial heating applications. Combustion studies have been undertaken and it appears to be well-suited as a commercial boiler fuel. Research is also being undertaken to develop switchgrass as a pellet fuel because of lack of surplus wood residues in eastern Canada,[33] as a slowdown in the forest products industry in 2009 is now resulting in wood pellet shortages throughout Eastern North America. Generally speaking, the direct firing of switchgrass for thermal applications can provide the highest net energy gain and energy output-to-input ratio of all switchgrass bioconversion processes.[34] Research has found switchgrass, when pelletized and used as a solid biofuel, is a good candidate for displacing fossil fuels. Switchgrass pellets were identified to have a 14.6:1 energy output-to-input ratio, which is substantially better than that for liquid biofuel options from farmland.[18] As a greenhouse gas mitigation strategy, switchgrass pellets were found to be an effective means to use farmland to mitigate greenhouse gases on the order of 7.6-13 tonnes per hectare of CO2. In contrast, switchgrass cellulosic ethanol and corn ethanol were found to mitigate 5.2 and 1.5 tonnes of CO2 per hectare, respectively.[14]  - - - 


On efficiency of plasma gasification of wood residues  [2011]

Rutberg, Ph.G. Bratsev, A.N. Kuznetsov, V.A. Popov, V.E. et al.

High temperature plasma gasification of wood is evaluated for the production of a fuel gas (syngas) for combined heat and power production. The advantages of plasma by comparison with existing thermochemical processes are in the high heating value gases, process control and the lower energy consumption per unit of output. From one kilogram of 20% moisture wood it is possible to obtain 4.64.8 MJ of electricity (net of electricity input) and 9.19.3 MJ of thermal energy when using wood with average elemental composition and with a LHV energy content of 13.9 MJ, when using a combined Brayton and Steam cycle generating plant. Experimental data from an air plasma gasification plant using alternating current (AC) plasma torches was integrated with a thermodynamic model showing that the chemical energy in the produced syngas was 13.814.3 MJ kg−1 with a power input of 2.23.3 MJ kg−1.