Front Page Prolog
Introduction to this page:
AIR REMEDIATION - Repairing The Air
Using BECCS and other technologies to REPAIR THE AIR
Rolling Back Climate Change
The BIG TEN COUNTRIES that
made most of Climate Change and will have to clean up most of Climate
China, United States, India, Russia, Japan, Germany, South Korea, Iran, Canada, Saudi Arabia
Practical Example: - Clean Energy Park
Clean energy facilities take
made of air's
CO2, make synthetic heating gas out of it,
use the heating gas to make electricity in Allam power plants, then
the air's CO2 forever safely
Clean Energy Parks have what it takes to convert some of the synthetic heating gas into net-zero liquid transportation fuels such as Biogasoline, Biodiesel, Biojet fuel.
If clean energy facilities run short of biomass synthetic heating gas for making electricity, they can safely use and sequester fossil natural gas instead.
Financing the halting of Climate Change's progression is going to be difficult. Perhaps a rotating crop of about one trillion trees or equivalent energy plants such as switchgrass will be needed for over 100 years. Planet Earth currently has about 3 trillion trees and might support an additional trillion. Consider this: Coal is almost everywhere. The world's countries - large and small - must have over a half-million professional coal miners. Anyone brave enough, strong enough, and smart enough to be able to earn a living working in dark and dangerous coal mines would certainly make excellent foresters.
Forestry agriculture in the most impoverished countries would be subsidized by the world's most industrialized countries. It shouldn't cost much. The negative emissions will help the entire world, the electricity - which will be a by-product in this instance - should help impoverished countries immensely. Recall what happened at Niagara Falls when George Westinghouse, Tesla, and Steinmetz built their hydroelectric plant there. It attracted energy hungry companies like ALCOA. For a while, Niagara Falls became the foremost source of hydroelectric power in North America, stimulating the development of innovative heavy industries in the Niagara Falls and Buffalo areas.
The United States is currently exporting tree wood pellets to Europe to help out with their environmental cleaning of electricity programs. Some agrarian countries could become wealthy exporting treebiomass pellets.
(Most BECCS installations are not as advanced nor efficient as Skyscrubber.)
TypicalExample: BECCS Energy Building Complexes: - Office, Apartment, Hospital, School, Industrial, Military, Airport, Shopping
(Below) Using the U.S. Capitol Complex and existing conventional technology as an example: How to clean up the emissions coming from the U.S. Capitol Complex
Add-on Retrofit Carbon Capture Module for
the World's Thousands of Existing Natural Gas Heated and Powered Building Complexes
(Current state-of-the-art technology here.) Worley Parsons - Carbon Capture Overview (3).pdf This pdf is an excellent introduction to current carbon capture technology.
A tiny wood pellet gasification front end not unlike what is being suggested in this website for the large Toshiba Allam power plants could also be added to make the Capital Complex carbon-negative to pull Climate Change out of the air.
This image appeared on this website several years ago when Nancy Pelosi was speaker of the House (and in charge of the U.S. Capitol Complex's boiler house and lawn mowing) during the Obama administration. At the time, a couple of gas-fired combined heat and power units were being proposed to replace the very old and very dirty coal boilers in the Capital Complex Boiler House and I was suggesting on this site we add a carbon capture unit to make the U.S. Capitol the world's first environmentally clean Capitol.
This is a good example of a suggested "Post-combustion Carbon Capture" application.It's technology is nowhere near as advanced as Skyscrubber's.
Practical Example: What about non-fossil energy sources such as windmills, solar cells and nuclear?
Global CO2 Sequestration
Consuming perhaps 200 million tons of trees a day
worldwide, this might deliver 100 million tons of Negative CO2
worldwide every day to flat-line CO2
This is a way to use brute force Negative CO2 to overpower everyone's positive CO2 emissions while the world is working on ways to reduce those emissions.
This technology could null the CO2 in the air big-time. As emissions are reduced, our trip back to a No Climate Change Planet Earth becomes faster and faster.
Carbon dioxide is a carbon atom attached to two
oxygen atoms to form a CO2 molecule. When a tree grows, it captures a lot of CO2
molecules and then detaches the carbon atom from the CO2's oxygen atoms,
discarding the oxygens back into the air. The carbon atoms are then used by the
tree to assemble wood fiber. Almost half the weight
of a tree are the carbon
atoms. Later, when the tree is gasified and burned to make electricity, the burning
process re-attaches a couple of oxygen atoms to each of the carbon atoms,
producing an exhaust mix of CO2 and water as steam. Wood would not burn without
this happening. As shown in
this tiny diagram, making CO2 from wood using fire releases a heck of a lot of heat.
The Allam cycle power plant has no smokestack. (Click) Burning natural gas fuel in the Allam engine causes 3.25% of the CO2 produced to become excess. It is bled off the working fluid stream to be sequestered (stored forever) in the ground, eventually to become limestone, while retaining the remainder of the CO2 as the engine's working fluid. [In a steam engine power plant 100% of the working fluid - water - is recovered and reused.] In addition to the CO2 pipe coming out of the Allam engine, there are water (the combustion product), plus nitrogen and argon pipes (left over from extracting the combustion oxygen from the air). These are of industrial purity and can be sold.
Toshiba will be making the Allam cycle plant's heavy equipment - the combustor (a device usually found in jet engines - there is no boiler), a strange-looking, rather small, single stage CO2+steam turbine , and a conventional electricity generator. One might consider this design to be a rocket engine (the combustor) connected directly to, and blasting directly into, a really strong steam turbine. Recall the white steam plume coming from space launch rockets? Toshiba plans on mass producing a large - 300 megaWatt(e) - power plant generator product. Power plants almost always come in at least a pair of generators. A pair of 300 megaWatt generators should be able to power a city with a population of about 1 million.
The world has over 50,000 coal and oil powered steam turbine engine power plants. Replacing about 6,000 of them with Allam clean energy wood burning plants to end Climate Change along with tens of thousands of Allam coal burning power plant replacements (see below) to end their atmospheric CO2 emissions would go a long way toward stopping Climate Change.
This is disruptive technology at its best. Changing just the electricity part of the world may drastically reduce and alter the nature and number of other changes that are currently deemed necessary to mitigate Climate Change.
Success of this idea depends on the technology for
gasifying a sufficient volume of trees into natural gas pipeline quality methane.
The time has come for James Watt's 1772 steam cycle engine (which brought
Climate Change along with powering the modern world) to make room for Rodney
Allam's 2018 CO2 cycle engine (which possibly could stop Climate Change while
not changing the modern world very much).
The intent for inventing the Allam Cycle was to make a very cost-efficient oxycombustion fossil fuel burning (i.e., natural gas, oil, coal, or lignite) electricity power plant that, by virtue of exploiting the energy advantages of CO2 as a working fluid, does not add to global air CO2 emissions and does not incur the heavy cost and energy penalties of traditional carbon capture and sequestration technologies.
The intent of this web site is to apply the Allam cycle power plant to an application that, in addition to making the world's electricity, also produces sufficient negative emissions to roll back Global Warming thereby extensively mitigating Climate Change.
We can make such a facility today with a plasma wood gasifier feeding a pair of today's conventional combined cycle gas turbines in post-combustion BECCS mode, but you would also need to purchase, power, and maintain an expensive amount of big post-combustion carbon-capturing equipment and accept the large parasitic power loss and, at best, only about 90%, not 100%, of the CO2 would end up getting captured with the remainder escaping back into the air.
1, Electrify everything possible with Allam cycle electricity. 2, Use carbon-neutral energy fuels for mobility and heat when we must.
It will be a couple of years before the Toshiba Allam 300 megaWatt power plant
hits the electricity market so we have some time to refine the details of a
negative version of the Allam power plant for subtracting out all that CO2 that's causing
I have dubbed this combination of industrial equipment "Clean Energy Plant". The Clean Energy Plant is becoming do-able and practical. Thousands will be needed. This equipment is undergoing rapid development by both U.S. and European manufacturers for use in the emerging "Green Natural Gas" systems industry being developed to replace the equipment currently being used to supply Europe's fossil natural gas grids.
It will literally take a world of work switching the world to make our electricity out of harvest-able wood planted all over the world.
So, by removing air's CO2 using BECCS, we can re-set the world's thermostat wherever we like. . . . . .
The CO2 in the air acts like a blanket - the more CO2, the thicker the blanket. Taking CO2 out of the air is like taking a blanket off your bed - you feel the change quickly.
U.S. CO2 Sequestration Issues
"The United States has the technological potential to offset roughly only a decade’s worth of its current CO2 emissions through biological sequestration (i.e., planting trees, etc.,) but a few hundred years’ worth of emissions through carbon dioxide capture and sequestration." - from Congressional Budget Office "The Potential for Carbon Sequestration in the United States, 2007" - Summary, page 2.
Storing CO2 underground can have geological consequences and is only done
legally under the supervision of government geological permitting agencies.
Example: Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership: https://www.mrcsp.org/
(One of dozens of Global CCS Institute reports.) Lessons
and Perceptions: Adopting a Commercial Approach to CCS Liability: 14th
August 2019, Organization: Global CCS Institute, CCS Liability, CCS Projects,
The world may need
more than 5,000 Allam clean energy electricity plants
to head off the worst of Climate Change.
Like cars, airplanes, and ships, clean energy electricity plants would be modular in design similar to
today's electricity power plants. Multiple electricity plants could be located
at a single site. Such modularity is an economic advantage in several ways. The
cost, quality, and reliability of mass-produced machines is hard
are almost unlimited opportunities for completely new greenfield
electricity power plants
now that prime underground strata for CCS CO2 sequestration locations have been
identified enabling cheap straight-down CO2 disposal via disposal wells located
on site property. Since potable water is one of the Allam Cycle's exhaust
Allam power plants could be located virtually anywhere there is
a CO2 disposal strata and sufficient biomass. This means there is no need for a
costly national CO2 disposal pipeline grid that may take 20 years and billions of
dollars to complete due to opposition by environmentalists.
Storing CO2 underground improperly could create an unsafe site and is only to be done under the supervision of government geological permitting agencies.
Beyond the fossil Fuel powered Allam Cycle:
We still have several hundred years of fossil fuels remaining. A few
hundred years should be enough time to perfect fission
nuclear energy and fusion nuclear energy.
Already, clean breaks from old fission nuclear power plant designs, such as NuScale, ( https://www.nuscalepower.com/ ), [ Electricity, Drinking Water, and Heat ] and melt-down-proof fuel rods for both new and existing power plants such as Lightbridge's ( https://ltbridge.com/ ), are being manufactured.
* The Allam Thermodynamic Cycle
Is The Best Key To Date For Unlocking Negative Emissions From Wood To End Climate Change
Fossil fuelled power generation without either CO2 air emissions or carbon capture expense.
NET Power, Chicago Bridge &
Iron, Exelon, Air Liquide,
and 8 Rivers Capital are working
to develop and commercialize the application of
supercritical carbon dioxide power cycle technology
for efficient emissions-free electric power generation.
The successful running of the Allam Thermodynamic Cycle pilot power plant in La Porte, Texas, provides solid evidence the Climate Change situation has changed for the better.
We can remove the excess CO2 we are putting in the air by making carbon-captured electricity from biomass syngas using the Allam Cycle in BECCS mode. This one change may be the quickest way to roll back Planet Earth's air CO2 to normal.
The Allam Cycle is a very new turbine technology that uses supercritical CO2 instead of steam as its working fluid. As of now, it is only running as a 1/10th size pilot plant in La Porte, Texas, since last November. So far, so good.
One has to be
struck by how different the Allam Cycle engine is from it's long evolutionary
line of internal combustion heat engine ancestors such as the
Otto cycle, Diesel cycle,
Brayton cycle, Lenoir cycle, Leclerc cycle, etc.
Lacking a boiler, it's combustor, connected directly to the turbine, is clearly descended from a liquid fuel rocket engine, on the other hand, it's turbine is a basic single-stage steam power plant turbine exhausting both steam and carbon dioxide into an exotic hotwell.
"One promising route for oxy-combustion is the so called "Allam Cycle", technology that is based on a new thermodynamic cycle that "uses a high-pressure CO2 cycle that makes carbon capture part of the core power generation process" (NetPower, 2017). The pilot plant is under construction as of 2017. It uses a turbine that uses natural gas (methane), which is combusted with oxygen. The exhaust CO2 gets recycled, so the working fluid inside the turbine is CO2. The CO2 recycling process increases the efficiency of the process and it compensates the cost penalty. If proven successful, this technology can provide a substantial change in CCS economics."
From what your author knows about carbon capture at this time, it looks as if the Allam cycle has it all over the other carbon capturing technologies out there and, if located above safely sequestable strata, it can provide the world with a bigger, cheaper, and cleaner carbon capture capability while being powered by a greater variety of fuels.
To be clear about the Allam Cycle
capabilities and possibilities:
The Allam Cycle Engine is a fossil fuel combustion gas machine that runs in the Oxy-fuel Carbon Capture mode. It uses carbon dioxide rather than nitrogen as the combustion diluent. This means it is incapable of producing air-polluting nitrous oxides (NOx). Different versions will enable it to run on the fossil fuels Natural Gas, Oil, Coal, Lignite. It will also run on Biomass Syngas along with carbon-neutral liquid fuels containing sufficient thermal energy content such as ethanol, etc. This fuel flexibility assures every country in the world has forms of local energy (often rooted in coal or biomass) that can power it and thus obtain Climate Change clean electricity at a very economically desirable cost. Smaller than coal powered steam generators, upgrading existing coal power plant facilities with new replacement Allam machinery may be a possibility for cash-strapped countries.
The Allam Cycle electricity power plant will only be available from a single source, Toshiba, in a single size, 300 megaWatts(e), large enough to power 225,000 California standard I.S.O. houses.
This old electrical engineer may be over-enthusiastic because this is the most successful supercritical carbon dioxide power plant he has ever read about, but at this moment, It looks like the world's first power plant with enough megaWatt power and displacement capacity to punch holes in Climate Change simply by burning substantial amounts of wood and sequestering the emissions. The notion that 6,000 of them could gang up on Global Warming and actually suck it out of the air is very appealing.
Torch Wood Gasifiers and Methanators Big Enough To Do The Job
NOTE: If you happen to know of sufficiently large gasifiers or methanators, please contact this website.
A wood biomass chip or pellet gasification facility capable of meeting the Allam fuel quality specification and supplying sufficient gas volume for a 300 mW Toshiba Allam facility. At this time there is no wood gasifier or methanator large enough to power a 300 mW Allam electricity generating turbine available on the industrial market. It is conceivable that the gasification system that has already been developed for burning lignite (60 million year old peat - compared to 250 million year old coal) in Allam cycle systems can be further developed for using wood pellets in an Allam BECCS application.
The first thing
that needs to be accomplished is the engineering necessary for building wood
gasifiers and methanators
with sufficient capacity to power a Toshiba Allam power plant at perhaps 70% of
full load (maximum baseload).
These are equipment items "5" and "7" on the system sketch above.
Gasifying ligneous material – in other words wood – to obtain a “lean” gas. Once it has been washed and purified, the lean gas undergoes a process of methanisation to turn it into a “rich” gas, primarily composed of methane, which can then be injected into gas networks.
Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) is biomethane that
is upgraded to natural gas pipeline quality standards such that it may blend
with, or substitute for, geologic natural gas.
This is the industry most likely to be able to make this kind of equipment large enough for BECCS applications.
Some Existing Technologies
is offering the biomass processing technology for a version of the clean energy
power plant now.
2. Also, check out plasma gasifier manufacturer AlterNRG: http://www.alternrg.com/ http://www.alternrg.com/waste_to_energy/waste-to-liquids/
How many trees will it take to remove 100 million tons of CO2 from the air per day (all sites combined)?
If you want to capture large volumes of air's CO2 carbon quickly, you can't beat wood biomass. 200 one-million ton trains a day would stop Climate Change.
The nascent Toshiba-built Allam Cycle 300 megaWatt power plant is big electricity. Instead of a train-a-day of coal, it will be at least train-a-day of green wood pellets or chips to each power plant.
The world made 23,816 TW-h (TerraWatt-Hours) or 23,816,000,000 MW-h (MegaWatt-hours) of electricity in 2017.
How many 300 MW Toshiba-Allam power plants burning how many tons of densified green wood pellets a year do we need to make that much electricity?
https://pellet.memberclicks.net/ How many tons of densified biomass pellets were produced last year: https://www.eia.gov/biofuels/biomass/
At this time, the world is not in any way
prepared to do what it must do to begin stopping Climate Change by 2050. Not
enough of anything. We need this
This is a diagram of the burning of methane.
Making biomethane in relatively small quantities from many diverse biosources, i.e., landfill, agwaste, and other similar biomass emissions is relatively easy and becoming common. Making biomethane from green wood in massive power plant quantities that exactly duplicates the relatively high energy content and purity of fossil natural gas (methane) is a work-in-progress at many fuel companies that see the handwriting on the wall.
Currently, biogas production plants are typically farms or waste treatment units where methane from agricultural by-products and waste is used to produce heat or combined heat and power (CHP). Due to its low energy density, this methane feedstock tends to be processed and consumed locally. Power plants that are burning wood to reduce their CO2 emissions are usually substituting cleaner wood pellets for coal to qualify for CO2 emissions reduction subsidies.
In Europe, currently 355 biomethane plants inject 11 TW-h (thermal) into the gas networks, an increase of 50% since 2013, and enough to heat approx. 740,000 homes. Furthermore, with an outlook on 17 TWh being injected to the gas networks by 2020 in Green Gas Initiative countries, the climate and environmental profile for gas consumption will improve, cutting CO2 -emissions of approx. 3.5 million tonnes2 or the equivalent of 1.8 million passenger car’s yearly CO2 emissions3 .
California has biomass power plants that consume 1 ton of woody biomass per hour for each megaWatt-hour
produced. So, a 300 megaWatt plant could consume as much as 24 x 300
tons or 7,200 tons of woody biomass per day. If a typical tree is 3 tons, that
would be 2,400 trees per day. 300 megaWatts times 24 hours is 7,200
megaWatt-hours. Electricity selling at $60 per mW-h would bring $432,000 per day
or $157,680,000 per year.
And this is for an inefficient, i.e., non-plasma, gasifier powering an inefficient, i.e., non-Allam type power plant with less than 30% rather than the Allam's 50% thermal efficiency.
A recent tree census indicates there may be 3 trillion trees in the world. That's 3 thousand billion trees. A billion is a thousand million. Once you have an efficient way to store air's CO2 safely forever underground, storing CO2 forever in trees above ground becomes a very bad idea and far more Climate Change dangerous. Eventually the CO2 will escape back into the air and make Climate Change even worse. We have to think of biomass such as trees as vegetables, not hallowed repositories of captured CO2. A map published in Sept 2015 NATURE magazine reveals that the global number of trees is approximately 3.04 trillion, an order of magnitude higher than the previous accepted estimate.
At some point a
tree's CO2 gathering performance reaches it's maximum and begins to decline. It will eventually die and
become mankind's climate enemy, its decaying CO2 returning to the air as surely as if it were burning.
Trees that have reached optimal CO2-gathering growth should be harvested immediately and replaced with vigorously growing young trees to continue the process of gathering as much CO2 from the air as rapidly as possible. The ground minerals recovered in the gasification clean-up process will be recycled as fertilizers and redistributed in the forest farms (stands).
The harvested trees, along with other available biomass (perhaps city garbage, sewage, agwaste, forest trimmings, etc.) would then be pelletized and their molecules broken down by a electrical plasma torch that makes Sun-hot heat. Heat this hot breaks the atomic bonds that hold molecules together, creating free carbon atoms and other atoms that can be sorted out and reassembled into syngas (synthetic methane gas) fuel for the Allam electricity power plant and remineralizing fertilizer for tree farms.
Getting the job of building thousands of clean energy facilities done quickly: Once the world realizes it needs thousands of Allam BECCS systems, everyone will want them NOW. In times of emergency, manufacture of critical technologies equipment can be licensed to multiple capable, but competing companies to quickly produce thousands of identical machines simultaneously. Led by Franklin Roosevelt, the United States did a masterful job of turning the Free World into the "Arsenal of Democracy" during World War II through cross-licensing of war-related patents and other technologies. The United States is again in the position to, this time, invent, produce, and manufacture the tools that will save the world from Climate Change.
The United States alone built 6,768 full-size ocean-going ships and about 300,000 airplanes over 4 years during World War II. With the Allam Cycle electricity power plant, bringing Climate Change under control is a much smaller task.
There is no reason the same wartime crisis production strategies cannot be used to quickly end the Climate Change Crisis.
Cities = power plants. Thousands of cities, thousands of clean energy facilities.
ELECTRICITY CARBON TAXES and CARBON
CAPTURE and SEQUESTRATION INCENTIVES
Information about the government's different Energy Innovation and Carbon Dividend Acts (Courtesy of Climate Change Working Group):
First, here's a link to the bill itself: https://www.congress.gov/bill/116th-congress/house-bill/763
Second, for anyone without the time or interest to read the entire bill, a link to a "road map" of the bill's contents, so the most relevant sections can be found with some ease: https://community.citizensclimatelobby.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/Section-by-Section-Analysis-Energy-Innovation-Act-2019.pdf
Third, here's a link to Citizen's Climate Lobby's website about the bill, which also allows a reader to see who has already endorsed the bill and what the press is saying about it. It includes an endorsement tool: https://energyinnovationact.org/
Finally, for anyone wanting to compare this bill to other carbon pricing bills, an assessment that compares this bill (sponsored by Rep. Ted Deutch of Florida and therefore called the Deutch bill in the analysis) to others: https://energypolicy.columbia.edu/research/commentary/how-bipartisan-energy-innovation-and-carbon-dividend-act-compares-other-carbon-tax-proposals
All these carbon tax fees raise a very serious
Q. How much per ton of CO2 is going to be refunded by the government to the operators of the above clean energy power plants to establish and operate a carbon dioxide disposal well on their own property?
A. Deutch bill: This section amends the Tax Code (Title 26) by adding the following subsections: Subtitle L - "Carbon Dividends and Carbon Fee", Sec. 9906 - Carbon Capture and Sequestration:
"Provides a refund of Carbon Fee paid when qualified carbon dioxide is captured and sequestered in a safe and permanent manner. Requires establishment of sound criteria for safe and permanent sequestration. Only CO2 from covered fuels, and only rebate for amount likely to remain sequestered."
- - - In the United States there are now 2 big carbon capture incentives: A recently expanded federal tax credit for captured CO2 and California’s new law requiring 100% of its electricity come from carbon-free sources by 2045.
In the U.S., carbon capture has led to the formation of extraordinary alliances. In 2018, a tax credit known as 45Q—so named for the relevant provision in the law—was revised to provide higher incentives for CCS with support from congressional lawmakers of both parties, big oil and gas, industry, and environmentalists. Over time, it will ramp up to $50 per metric ton of carbon stored geologically and $35 per metric ton of carbon stored through enhanced oil recovery, provided projects commence construction by the end of 2023. - Brad Page, Bloomberg Environment, Posted May 13, 2019, 6:00 AM
The LCFS and CCS Protocol: An Overview for Policymakers and Project Developers - California - pdf. If building the above Clean Energy Power Plant interests you, you need this document.
How To Produce The Carbon-neutral Combustion Fuels Needed To End the 100 Million Tons of Fossil CO2 We Are Adding to the Air Every Day
2016_billion_ton_report_12.2.16_0.pdf (400+ Pages)
Methanol - The Basic Chemical and Energy Feedstock of the Future.pdf
Home, Front Page, Page 1 - Stopping Climate Change Page 2 - The Skyscrubber Climate Change Remover Page 3 - Rolling Back Climate Change
Notice Wood has more CO2 than any fossil fuel and Hydrogen makes no CO2 at all.