SkyScrubber.com                                                                                                     1.  Biomass + Fossil Fuels + Nuclear Power
Front Page            Prolog


          Introduction to this page:
What:
Where:
When:
Why: 
How:

            Biomass + Fossil Fuels + Nuclear Power

The Race to suck Climate Change out of the air is on!
Check out: https://globalthermostat.com/   
https://netpower.com/the-cycle/    https://carbonengineering.com/   
https://www.climeworks.com/    http://www.cleanenergysystems.com/ 
  https://www.carbfix.com/  
Sorry for the chaotic organization of the website but things are breaking over a wide range of energy technologies right now - Fall, 2020. A well-structured paper on StoppingClimateChange, i.e., removal of Climate Change from the air, would have two phases:
 1., Achieving Deep Decarbonization (by others). [See bottom of this page.], and 2., Repairing The Air, i.e., removal of Climate Change from the atmosphere. [This page.] Both phases could take place concurrently but with reduced efficiency.

Carbon
Carbon atoms make up an immense part of our molecular structure. Without carbon, the many other elements that make up our bodies would not be able to function properly. Human beings are a "carbon-based” life form. As we go about our lives, our supply of carbon diminishes and needs replacing. Carbon is, therefore, an essential component of the human diet. Luckily, the foods we consume make carbon readily available to us. Fruits, vegetables, grains, and meats all contain abundant stores of carbon.
Macronutrients & Carbon
Our intake of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins supply us with carbon in the form of large molecules called macronutrients. The majority of our diet can be classified into one of these three food groups; all contain a foundation of carbon with slightly differing additional chemical properties. Virtually, everything we eat contributes to our carbon intake.
The Carbon Cycle
In one form or another, all of the food we eat contains carbon dioxide. The plants we consume, such as vegetables, absorb carbon dioxide in the air through the process called photosynthesis. The animals we eat ingest carbon dioxide via the grass and plants they consume. Ultimately, everything that is organic, or living, gives its carbon back to nature either through respiration (i.e., humans) or through death and decay. This recycling and reuse of carbon is known as the Carbon Cycle.
Carbon is The Key
Over 30 elements are needed to keep plants and animals healthy, but carbon is perhaps the single most important element. This is because it serves as the foundation for all of the remaining elements in our body. Almost every part of our bodies is made up of large quantities of carbon. The most effective way to sustain adequate carbon levels is through a nutrient dense, balanced diet.- ( Taken from   https://www.leaf.tv/articles/carbon-based-foods-that-humans-eat/    FERN is the European voice for forests:   https://www.fern.org/   )

The Cause of Climate Change is contamination of the air due to burning toxically large quantities of the ancient carbon contained in fossil fuels.
The UN’s climate panel found that any scenario that doesn’t warm the planet by more than 1.5 ˚C will require nearly eliminating emissions by midcentury, as well as removing 100 billion to 1 trillion metric tons of carbon dioxide from the air this century.
 Keeping warming below 2˚ C could necessitate sucking out 10 billion tons a year by 2050 and 20 billion annually by 2100, a study by the National Academies found.

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REPAIRING the AIR

 To undo Climate Change, one way or another, wood will play a major role in this transition. There will be two major aspects:
1, Synthesize our liquid and gaseous combustion fuels from Synthetic natural Gas made from Wood to replace gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, natural gas, etc.
2, Return the toxic excess amounts of carbon in the air to the ground via BioEnergy Carbon Capture and Storage of Synthetic natural Gas made from Wood (i.e., BECCS).

WOOD'S CHEMISTRY and ENERGY
Wood to Synthetic Natural Gas

The scientific case for wood bioenergy grows stronger, wood will eventually make the largest contribution to repairing the air.
Wood is a legitimate source of energy.  It was once mankind's sole source of dispatchable heat and can be so again. But the trip back to dominance will be long.


Small nuclear, such as NuScale power, can safely and economically provide the conversion energy to maximize every precious wood molecule's carbon contribution.

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We can use Both the Chemistry and the Energy of Wood as GLOBAL THERMOSTAT control mechanisms.
Substituting Synthetic Natural Gas made from carbon-neutral Wood instead of toxic carbon-positive Coal, Oil or Natural Gas will cost more per BTU,
but this approach avoids the cost and time necessary to replace the majority of the World's energy distribution networks and consumer energy consumption equipment.

(Above) Concepts for both CARBON NEUTRALIZATION of all of today's fossil fuels - solid, liquid, and gas -
and simultaneous REMOVAL of
existing excessive Climate Changing CO
2 from the air.
(Click To Enlarge)
New nuclear could maximize the manufacture and use of hydrogen in the gas distribution grid (4) thus maximizing the availability and minimizing the cost of making synthetic gas from wood for electricity (7).

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Redistribution of U.S. fuel sources and U.S. fuel consumption using existing distribution grids.


(This sketch was made before the Allam Cycle, with it's excellent potential for BECCS Climate Change CO2 Removal and Storage was proven.)

We need about 10,000 renewable Fuel Factories immediately to head off the worst of Climate Change.

We need about 10,000 Fuel Factories immediately to head off the worst of Climate Change.  Like cars, airplanes, and ships, Fuel Factories would be modular in design similar to today's electricity power plants. Ten or even 20 fuel factory modules could be located at a single large fuel factory. Such modularity is an economic advantage in quite a few ways. For example, you can run different products on different modules at the same time, varying the numbers of modules making the same product to mesh with current market needs. The quality and reliability of factory-built modules of anything is hard to beat.  https://www.biomass.net/Biomass-and-Climate-Change.html 

There are almost unlimited opportunities for completely new greenfield Fuel Factories now that prime underground strata for CCS CO2 disposal locations have been identified enabling cheap straight-down CO2 disposal via disposal wells located on site property. No need for a costly national CO2 disposal grid that may take 20 to 40 years to complete due to obstruction by environmentalists.

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CARBON TAXES and CARBON CAPTURE INCENTIVES
Information about the government's different Energy Innovation and Carbon Dividend Acts
(Courtesy of Climate Change Working Group):

First, here's a link to the bill itself: https://www.congress.gov/bill/116th-congress/house-bill/763 
Second, for anyone without the time or interest to read the entire bill, a link to a "road map" of the bill's contents, so the most relevant sections can be found with some ease:  
https://community.citizensclimatelobby.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/Section-by-Section-Analysis-Energy-Innovation-Act-2019.pdf 
Third, here's a link to Citizen's Climate Lobby's website about the bill, which also allows a reader to see who has already endorsed the bill and what the press is saying about it. It includes an endorsement tool: 
https://energyinnovationact.org/ 
Finally, for anyone wanting to compare this bill to other carbon pricing bills, an assessment that compares this bill (sponsored by Rep. Ted Deutch of Florida and therefore called the Deutch bill in the analysis) to others:   https://energypolicy.columbia.edu/research/commentary/how-bipartisan-energy-innovation-and-carbon-dividend-act-compares-other-carbon-tax-proposals

All these carbon tax fees raise a very serious question:
Q. How much per ton of CO2 is going to be refunded by the government to the operators of the above fuel factories to establish and operate a carbon dioxide disposal well on their own property?

A. Deutch bill: This section amends the Tax Code (Title 26) by adding the following subsections: Subtitle L - "Carbon Dividends and Carbon Fee", Sec. 9906 - Carbon Capture and Sequestration:

"Provides a refund of Carbon Fee paid when qualified carbon dioxide is captured and sequestered in a safe and permanent manner. Requires establishment of sound criteria for safe and permanent sequestration. Only CO2 from covered fuels, and only rebate for amount likely to remain sequestered."

- - - In America there are now 2 big carbon capture incentives: A recently expanded federal tax credit for captured CO2 and California’s new law requiring 100% of its electricity come from carbon-free sources by 2045.
 

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These Wood Carbon Synthetic Fuel Parks Located Above CO2 Storage Strata Can Be All Over The World

Item: 0 Discussion  1 Nuclear Desalination, Power  2 Air  3 Vehicle Fuels  4 Biomass  5 Plasma Biomass Gasifier  6 Methanator  7 Natural Gas Allam Cycle Power Plant  8 Coal-or-Lignite-to-Synthetic-Gas Adaptor  9 CO2 Disposal Well
(The idea behind this design is that huge Biomass sources are not as reliable as Natural Gas, so having a power plant that can run 100% clean on standby natural gas at no extra cost, or, if you are willing to pay the price, a Coal Adaptor, is important.)

Air's CO2, captured by trees as they grow, can be permanently recovered and locked underground forever by BECCS power plants. If trees decay on the forest floor, their CO2 returns to the air to make Climate Change worse.
Similar Plasma Torch Gasifiers have been built and sold in Asia for converting raw city garbage (Metropolitan Solid Waste - MSW) into adequate quality synthesis gas to power utility electricity generating turbines.
A key critical feature of this power plant site is that it is located directly over an adequate CO2 geological sequestration vault site for fastest and least expensive CarbFix CO2 sequestration.
The Natural Gas Reformer producing the additional hydrogen necessary for the complete Methanation of plasma pyrolyzed wood is operating in the IEA World Energy Council's 'BLUE' Low CO2 Emissions mode. [2.701.98]

Bottom Line: The chemistry to make synthetic natural gas out of wood already exists at small plant size.
This website is suggesting leading chemical engineering and construction companies look into providing wood-gasification systems for large Allam Cycle power plants on a global basis.

It should be pointed out that that a 300 megaWatt power plant can easily power 30,000 10,000 watt houses. This much carbon-neutral synthetic natural gas could also replace the natural gas needed to heat that same town, providing a substantial deep decarbonization.

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                   We can reconfigure "Climate Change" into "Climate Control".
1, Decarbonization is about ending the production of adding additional Climate Changing carbon dioxide (CO2) to the air.
2, BECCS is a technology we can use to restore the air to the way it used to be before Climate Change.
BECCS stands for Bio-Energy with Carbon Capture and Storage.
This website presents a BECCS plan that is far better than the current inefficient BECCS plan being advocated by the
United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
 

A Practical Path for Adjusting The Climate Changing CO2 In The Air

The shock of the pandemic crisis could be just what is needed to consign less effective climate policies to the trash bin.

Stopping Climate Change might be quicker, easier, and cheaper than we think.    Please read: Prolog

Once the Coronavirus Pandemic has passed, we can employ both existing and new tools to achieve the 2050 1.5 ppm CO2 limit necessary to avoid disaster.

OLD EXISTING BECCS TOOLS: 1, Trees, 2, Saws, 3, The Sabatier chemical reaction (1885) to turn trees into synthetic natural gas.  (
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sabatier_reaction )
NEW TOOLS: 1, Natural gas-burning, liquid CO2 producing, Allam power plants, 2, CO2 storage vault wells, 3, CarbFix CO2-to-Limestone [Carbonate] chemistry to lock liquid CO2 deep underground forever. 


Even if we stopped emitting all CO2 tomorrow, the world would continue getting warmer because the excess CO2 will go away very slowly.  Some will remain in the air for a thousand years.
The more CO2 we remove from the air now, the less total Global Warming we will have and the less CO2 we will eventually have to remove after we end CO2 emissions from fossil fuels.

Old growth forests that have already absorbed and stored massive amounts of climate-warming carbon dioxide from the air. Harvesting and then reforesting trees will then pull another slug of CO2 from the air.

"The low-end IPCC estimate requires pulling 100 billion tons of carbon dioxide from the air by 2100, roughly double the amount that humanity produces in a year.

([3,000 Allam power plants running for 50 years.] At 3 tons of CO2 per tree, 100 billion tons CO2 is about 33 billion trees. The world has about 3 trillion trees. A trillion is 1,000 billion. 3,000 billion trees minus 33 billion = 2,967 billion trees remaining.)

The high-end estimate is 1,000 billion tons, effectively forcing humanity to undo 20 years of global greenhouse gas emissions.

Either way, it means that carbon removal is no longer just a potential strategy for fighting climate change. It is now within our grasp.
Given the very high likelihood we will overshoot our deep decarbonization emissions reduction targets, carbon removal is now an absolute necessity for avoiding worst-case scenarios."
From:  https://www.vox.com/energy-and-environment/2018/10/24/18001538/climate-change-co2-removal-negative-emissions-cdr-carbon-dioxide   See also:  https://www.yaleclimateconnections.org/2010/12/common-climate-misconceptions-atmospheric-carbon-dioxide/ 

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Back to the Future: The Municipal Gas House Facility (ca. 1805)

                         

We used to use coal to make "City Gas", we can use wood to make carbon-neutral "Synthetic Natural Gas" (Syngas).

 Carbon-neutral gas for warming cities to achieve the Deep Decarbonization goal.
Carbon-neutral gas for BECCS electricity and desalination plants to Repair the Air.
The CO2 that is taken from the air as the wood is growing can be liquefied and injected as CarbFix CO2 deep underground forever in a safe geological storage vault.

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Pretending trees never stop growing or die is the danger inherent in planting trees to combat Climate Change.

There's danger in letting wood's CO2 decay back into the air as additional Climate Changing CO2 or worse, become dry tinder to create massive seasonal forest wildfires worldwide.
Old tree deadfall wood should be gathered up, shredded, and densified into combustion pellets to make electricity. Once burned in Allam Cycle CO2 holding power plants,
the wood's captured and liquefied CO2 can be safely stored forever in porous underground cavern vaults as CarbFix Limestone [Carbonate]. 
  https://www.carbfix.com/ 
Recent U.S. wildfire report pdf:  https://www.pnas.org/content/pnas/114/18/4582.full.pdf    2.000.04.23 ----- Forests That Survive Mega fires Prove Good Management Trumps Climate Change
 

                
          

As an introduction to this website, your author is using the abstract portion of the scientific paper:  "Carbon sequestration via wood burial" by Ning Zeng.  

"To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level.
Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in
which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters.
The largely anaerobic condition under a
sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood.
Because a large
flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink.

It is estimated that a sustainable long-term carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 ± 5 GtC y-1, and currently about 65 GtC is on the world's forest floors in the form of coarse woody debris suitable for burial.
The potential is largest in tropical forests (4.2 GtC y-1), followed by temperate (3.7 GtC y-1) and boreal forests (2.1 GtC y-1).
Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger.
There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized.

Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be $14/tCO2($50/tC), far lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage.
The cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is low because CO2 is removed from the atmosphere by the natural process of photosynthesis at little cost.
The technique is low tech, distributed, easy to monitor, safe, and reversible, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market."



The above article abstract is available from: http://www.cbmjournal.com/content/3/1/1 © 2008 Zeng; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.  Please read the whole paper. It's short and well-written.  [ 2.220.01.pdf  
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

ALSO: https://daily.jstor.org/the-miyawaki-method-a-better-way-to-build-forests/      Pellet Fuels Institute:  https://pellet.memberclicks.net/ 

https://www.iea.org/  http://task38.ieabioenergy.com/    International Energy Agency, IEA Bioenergy Task 38: "Greenhouse Gas Balances of Biomass and Bioenergy Systems", Investigates the climate effects of bioenergy and land-based carbon sequestration systems to support development of climate change mitigation strategies. Answers to ten frequently asked questions about bioenergy, carbon sinks and their role in global climate change.  [2.000.03.01]

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Obtaining Massive Volumes of Trees to Provide the World's Syngas and Removing Climate Change From the Air

The most recent data from NASA Earth Resources Surveys indicates there are about 3 Trillion trees on Planet Earth. A trillion is a thousand billion. A billion is a thousand million. A million is a thousand thousand. That's a lot of trees.
Forestry estimates indicate the average tree weighs about 5 tons.
It is virtually impossible to make and burn the world's hardwood densified wood pellets faster than their wood can grow. 
[2.000.04.20]
The average cost of carbon removal via tree restoration is less than $10 per ton of CO2. - Carbonshot  https://www.wri.org/our-work/project/carbon-removal World Resources Institute  https://www.wri.org/about   [2.100.01]

Wood Heating  by Michael Kuhns, Extension Forestry Specialist, and Tom Schmidt, Forester*   https://forestry.usu.edu/forest-products/wood-heating 

Primary energy: Annual Consumption by fuel, in Exajoules, Rounded. (British Petroleum Statistical Review of World Energy, 2020).  Bold = Sources of fossil carbon.
Fuel:       Oil     Gas     Coal    Nuclear    Hydro    Renewables     Total  
U.S.        37        29        13        8                3             6                    96
World    191    139        159      24            37            26                  576        

 

 

 

 


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The Power of BioEnergy with Carbon Capture and Storage Technology

Using BECCS to store old tree CO2 underground forever in Carbon Capture and Storage Vaults
The CO2 would be stored underground forever (in CCS Vaults) as CarbFix Limestone [Carbonate], eventually ending Climate Change.  https://www.carbfix.com/ 
 

                     
  

   
A New Technology: A new kind of oxy-combustion engine, the Allam Cycle, offers advanced BECCS technology for removing Climate Change from the air.
 

DOUBLE BENEFIT:
 

Bio-Energy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS), can make large amounts of electricity from trees while also capturing and storing underground forever the large amount of CO2 that the trees had earlier removed from the air while growing.
                                                   
This removes Climate Change from the air forever.

 

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Replacing the old Steam Carnot Energy Cycle with the new CO2 Allam Energy Cycle
for capturing CO
2 emissions to take maximum advantage of the BECCS CO2 Technology
 

 

The Allam Cycle power plant's introductory video:  https://netpower.com/the-cycle/ 
What the StoppingClimateChange website is suggesting: A wood-powered Allam Cycle power plant would make the most effective BECCS power plant in the world.


Using Allam Cycle BECCS to repair our air
   

The Allam Cycle is real.  A 30 megaWatt pilot plant (image above, right, click) has been running in La Port, Texas, for two years.
TOSHIBA will begin manufacturing a new, large, non-nuclear, city-size 300 megaWatt Allam power plant in 2021-2. It can do BECCS much better than other proposed BECCS power plants.
Called the Allam Cycle power plant, it captures ALL it's emissions so it has no smokestack.
Since it's non-nuclear, it shouldn't need any special technical staff or licensing beyond the Class VI CO
2 disposal well.   https://www.epa.gov/uic/class-vi-wells-used-geologic-sequestration-co2
(A major risk for nuclear is the need to provide the full spectrum of regulatory safety reviews and oversight of the project.)
Allam Cycle BECCS can remove more climate changing CO2 from the air per gigaWatt of capacity than any other electricity generating technology.
 

Global BECCS, done big enough and long enough, plus global deep decarbonization, is all we need to do to end Climate Change forever and build a BioWorld.

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Contemplating Returning To A BioWorld

In his scientific paper about the Allam Cycle, Dan F. Smith, et al*, rates the 300 megaWatt Toshiba Allam Cycle power plant at 772,200 tons of CO2 sequestered per year.
That means 45,325 Allam Cycle plants could remove a year's worth of current CO2 emissions (35 Billion tons) from the air in a year, perhaps repairing the air in about 50 years.
 At 3 tons of CO2 per tree, 100 billion tons CO2 is about 33 billion trees. The world has about 3 trillion trees. A trillion is 1,000 billion. 3,000 billion trees minus 33 billion = 2,967 billion trees remaining.
(1 hectare = 2.47105 acres, = 0.00386102 sq miles, = 0.0099999958937700001 sq kilometers.) 
This shows how big a job repairing Planet Earth's air is going to be.

But not impossible. The world currently has well over 50,000 running fossil-fuel power plants.
This many wood-burning Allam Cycle power plants would effectively stop today's Climate Change's growth in it's tracks.
$30 per ton CO2 sequestered, $50 per megaWatt-hour seems to be the ballpark money available over a 60-year plant life.  https://www.equinor.com/en/what-we-do/h2hsaltend.html 

Bottom Line: The wood of trees must be kept from returning their CO2 back to the air when they die. With CarbFix sequestration, CO2 is locked deep underground forever. It cannot be recovered.

Dan F. Smith's scientific paper: "Process and Carbon Footprint Analyses of the Allam Cycle Power Plant Integrated with an Air Separation Unit" 15/Sep/2019  appeared in 'Clean Technologies' Journal. 
Google fetched a free pdf copy for your author at:
  https://www.mdpi.com/2571-8797/1/1/22 
Engineers should have a copy in hand because the paper will give them detailed insight into how the Allam thermodynamic cycle both functions and performs.   [2.804.35] 

Clean Energy Systems ( http://www.cleanenergysystems.com/ ) has a similar predecessor system in the same league but appears to be using somewhat earlier different technology.

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Making Carbon-neutral Syngas
An Advanced Allam Cycle Bio-Energy Facility with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS)

About 20% Of The World's Energy Is Used To Make Electricity.  Using Wood Pellets To Make Most Of The World's Electricity Will Repair The Air.
(Below) This is how a wood-powered Allam Cycle BECCS power plant could make electricity while repairing the air.  
It would sequester 3/4 million tons of CO2 each year ($75,000,000 @ $100/ton) while producing 2,628,000 megaWatt-hours ($131,400,000 @ $50 mW-h) of electricity each year.


Air's CO2, captured by trees as they grow, can be permanently recovered and locked underground forever by BECCS power plants. If trees decay on the forest floor, their CO2 returns to the air to make Climate Change worse.
Similar Plasma Torch Gasifiers have been built and sold in Asia for converting raw (bio+trash) city garbage (Metropolitan Solid Waste - MSW) into adequate quality synthesis gas to power utility electricity generating turbines.
A key critical feature of this power plant site is that it is located directly over an adequate CO2 geological sequestration vault site for fastest and least expensive CarbFix CO2 sequestration.
The Natural Gas Reformer producing the additional hydrogen necessary for the complete Methanation of plasma pyrolyzed wood is operating in the IEA World Energy Council's 'BLUE' Low CO2 Emissions mode. [2.701.98]

Bottom Line: The chemistry to make synthetic natural gas out of wood already exists at small plant size.
This website is suggesting leading chemical engineering and construction companies look into providing wood-gasification systems for large Allam Cycle power plants on a global basis.

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Captured Carbon's Underground CO2 Storage Vault Locations:
U.S. and Global Deep Underground BECCS Negative CO2 Storage Zones

The United States' Carbon Capture and Storage Situation:
"The United States has the technological potential to offset roughly only a decade’s worth of its current CO2 emissions through biological sequestration (i.e., planting trees, etc.,) but a few hundred years’ worth of emissions through carbon dioxide capture and sequestration." - from Congressional Budget Office "The Potential for Carbon Sequestration in the United States, 2007" - Summary, page 2. 

See CarbFix: CO2 Locked in the ground forever. Watch:
  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1zDZmIDbDO0   (Skip the ad someone inserted in front of the video.)
If water is added to the liquid CO2 as it is pumped into the ground, the CO2 will turn into limestone [carbonate] after a few years. This locks the CO2 underground forever.

               
Maps Showing various UNDERGROUND CARBON CAPTURE STORAGE STRATA LOCATIONS 
See:  "Geospatial analysis of near-term potential for carbon-negative bioenergy in the United States" by Ejeong Baik, et al.  https://www.pnas.org/content/115/13/3290  (pdf)
Locations without carbon disposal will have to rely on renewables - wind, solar - for their electricity.

Bottom Line: BECCS Power Plants for rolling back Climate Change can be located over CO2 storage zones almost anywhere and connected to the electrical grid.

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Stopping Climate Change might be quicker, easier, and cheaper than we think.
The electrical grid enables BECCS electricity plants to be located over CO2 disposal strata distant from population centers.


30,000 illuminated cities could mean more than 30,000 nearby coal power plants. 20,000 Allam BECCS power plants could, over 50 to 200 years, roll Climate Change back to normal or less.
We could build BECCS power plants next to existing unneeded coal power plants on their property to roll back Climate Change at minimal delay and cost.

 

Legacy coal power plants are already connected to electrical grids.        
Nearly 300 coal-fired power plants have been "retired" since 2010 in the U.S. alone, according to the Sierra Club.

 

Bottom Line: Stopping, then rolling back, Climate Change might be quicker, easier, and cheaper than we think.

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U.S. BIOMASS FACILITIES: www.biomasspowerassociation.com

 

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"Technological fixes are often far simpler, and therefore cheaper, than the doomsayers could have imagined." -  ( From Prologue )

One objective of this website is to communicate that - in some ways - the current Climate Change crisis resembles the world's early 1900s horseshit crisis described in this website's 'Prologue' story.
You can't see or smell them, but your car's 150+ horsepower engine is capable of making appallingly large amounts of CO2 turds when you stand on the accelerator.

Here’s an analogy that Hans Joachim Schellnhuber, who helped compile some of the climate research data for the World Bank, likes to use:
"Take the human body. If your temperature rises 2°C, you have a significant fever. If it rises 4°C or 6°C you can die. It’s not a linear change."

 

 

The 547-page report, the most ambitious Democratic climate plan to date, calls for setting a price on carbon dioxide pollution, eliminating pollution from cars by 2035 and from power plants by 2040 and achieving net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050.
It also aims to make environmental justice a focus and says marginalized communities that often suffer the worst effects of climate change and pollution must get "the tangible benefits" of climate action. - - - July 1, 2020

2.701.22 Why the Color of a Colorless Gas Matters for Green Energy.doc

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Phase One: Deep Decarbonization

 

Phase One: Deep Decarbonization       (This website:)  http://deepdecarbonization.org/   Stopping the production of Climate-changing CO2.
("Deep Decarbonization" means ending at least 80% of the Climate Changing carbon dioxide (CO2) we are making, the Prerequisite for permanently Repairing the Air)
StoppingClimateChange.com is about building wood synthetic natural gas burning electricity power plants, and/or desalinators, and/or city heating gas plants, to roll back Climate Change AT SCALE.  Cited pdfs describe the United States' portion of the Deep Decarbonization website's technology recommendations.

Why Phase One, Deep Decarbonization?   There is no point in beginning Phase Two, Repairing the Air, if the air doesn't have a chance to stay repaired because our energy sources are not sufficiently deeply decarbonized.

The Deep Decarbonization .org Website is one of several groups working to sort out what actually needs to be done to achieve Deep Decarbonization. Currently, the 16 most energy intensive industrial countries (Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, Russia, South Africa, UK, USA) are being examined.
 
Deep Decarbonization Website:   http://deepdecarbonization.org/  
[2.000.08.00]
Deep Decarbonization:  http://deepdecarbonization.org/countries/    http://deepdecarbonization.org/countries/visualization-of-country-scenarios/
Deep Decarbonization Pathways Project:  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deep_Decarbonization_Pathways_Project

United States:   http://deepdecarbonization.org/countries/#united-states 
United States:   https://unfccc.int/files/focus/long-term_strategies/application/pdf/mid_century_strategy_report-final_red.pdf 
United States:  Technical Report:   http://deepdecarbonization.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/US_Deep_Decarbonization_Technical_Report.pdf
United States:  Technical Report:  Executive Summary:   http://deepdecarbonization.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/US_Deep_Decarbonization_Technical_Report_Exec_Summary.pdf
United States:  Policy Report:    http://deepdecarbonization.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/US_Deep_Decarbonization_Policy_Report.pdf
United States:  Policy Report:  Executive Summary:   http://deepdecarbonization.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/US_Deep_Decarbonization_Policy_Report_Exec_Summary.pdf 

This website is an effort to persuade the United Nations International Panel of Climate Control (IPCC) to upgrade it's post-decarbonization thinking to using modern BECCS technology as a foundation for Repairing the Air.

To put this website in perspective, see also:  https://www.greencarcongress.com/2020/09/20200908-audidac.html    https://www.greencarcongress.com/2020/09/20200908-ricardo.html 

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Introduction to this page:
What:
Atlanta's urban hardwood forest sequesters more than twice as much carbon (46,345 tons each year) as Calgary, Alberta's, conifer forest (21,422 tons annually). The message: Plant native hardwoods. By focusing on native species, we will create community forests that not only sequester carbon but also nourish wildlife.  So if you’re trying to figure out which trees to plant on your property, consider a fast-growing tree species, like maple, oak or catalpa.

Where:
http://www.forestecologynetwork.org/climate_change/sequestration_facts.html
When:
Why: 
How:

 

BIOMASS FUEL: THIS IS NOT JUST BURNING TREES FOR ENERGY.

Shredded GMO Wood Pellet Preparation and Handling


A Canadian company is suggesting using drones to plant thousands of trees
 per day to replace large mature trees used for BECCS negative CO2 applications.
https://flashforest.ca/   https://www.dendra.io/   https://www.fs.fed.us/eng/ref/seedlings/planting/mechplan.htm 
 

https://flashforest.ca/   https://www.dendra.io/ 
https://www.fs.fed.us/eng/ref/seedlings/planting/mechplan.htm  

https://www.globalsyngas.org/ 

Introduction        WoodWaste

The biggest challenge will be obtaining sufficient biomass, then keeping it from self-igniting or exploding.

 

Wood Pellets:    http://biomassmagazine.com/  http://biomassmagazine.com/newsletter/pellet-mill-press/

https://www.cpm.net/           Automation Assistants

Forest thinning machines that produce the equivalent of a controlled forest burn might harvest enough brush feedstock to replace America's need for heating gas.  

 

http://www.gemcopelletmills.com/wood-pellet-factory-cost.html 

 

Biomass Magazine Bob Zalosh
Professor Emeritus,
Fire Protection Engineering
Dave Grandaw
Vice President Sales,
IEP Technologies
Mika Vannas
CEO and Founder,
Atexon Oy

img-031219.jpg Dust explosions can present serious risk within a biomass facility. Ignition of a dust cloud in process equipment can destroy the primary vessel, propagate to interconnected equipment and the plant, causing secondary explosions with devastating results. Fortunately, there are proven ways to address this threat. This webinar reviews how and where explosions initiate and propagate, steps in a hazard assessment to evaluate areas of risk, dust collection and housekeeping strategies for minimizing the overall risk to the facility, and the various methods of deflagration prevention and protection that can be employed to protect facilities against explosions.

 

icon_twitter Follow Us: twitter.com/biomassmagazine
BBI International | 308 2nd Ave. N., Suite 304 | Grand Forks, ND 58203 | service@bbiinternational.com
 

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Introduction

What is needed are fully developed Green Gas systems for preparing Densified Wood Pellets (DWP) as feedstock for 300 megaWatt(e) Toshiba-built Allam Cycle electricity plants.

(Below) TEES Valley 1, A Metropolitan Solid Waste (garbage) biomass burning electricity power plant. 

Tees Valley is a precursor power plant that had to process a great variety of moist materials into combustibles in order to produce a low-energy gas to power a couple of small electricity generators. Pre-processing moist biomass proved to be problematic.

Using only commercially available densified wood pellets brought in from a large number of commercial sources by railroad sidesteps this problem. The United States is currently shipping boatloads of Densified Wood Pellets to Europe as an environmentally clean substitute for coal.

Tees Valley is a UK municipal garbage disposal site that takes 1,000 tons of garbage (MSW) per day and, using a Alter NRG Westinghouse Model G65 plasma gasifier, breaks it down into syngas (a synthetic natural gas) to power jet engines that are driving utility electricity generators - instead of using it to make vehicle ethanol as is shown in the above image.

 

             

                                                100 Ton, Four-Hopper Pellet Car                                                                                          Wood Pellets

 

 

Notice wood produces more CO2 than coal. - Not a bad thing when you are making syngas.

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WoodWaste

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AgWaste

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City Garbage - Metropolitan Solid Waste (MSW)   https://www.granutech.com/solid-waste-shredding.html  https://www.ssiworld.com/en/applications/solid_bulky_waste 

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)
MSW is a readily available, low cost fuel, with a high organic content when processed to suit the particular gasification process being used. Several plants in Japan and Europe already employ gasification technology for treatment of MSW.1

In 2010, 250 million tons of trash were generated in the United States, and 85 million tons (34.1%) of that was recycled or composted. Organic materials compose the largest component of MSW. The chart at the right shows a breakdown of the 250 ton total MSW produced in the United States in 2010 by type of material.1


The only portions of the MSW that cannot be gasified are metals and glass. Textiles, rubber including old tires, and all types of plastics can be gasified, provided that adequate gas clean up is utilized.

Recovering energy from MSW in Waste-to-Energy (WTE) plants reduces the space required for land filling and offsets the use of fossil fuels for electrical production. When compared to combustion for processing of MSW, gasification decreases air/water emissions. Within this context, gasification uses oxygen and water vapor to produce a combustible synthesis gas (syngas) from organic compounds in the MSW, which can be used to generate electricity, produce chemicals, liquid fuels, hydrogen (H2), etc. Syngas produced from MSW by a gasifier is cleaned up more economically and using simpler systems compared to combustion exhaust gases due to the syngas being more condensed. The conversion of energy in gasification is also much more efficient than the thermal conversion offered by combustion. Challenges to MSW gasification commercialization include the processing costs of converting MSW to refuse derived fuel (RDF) and the formation of tars in the high temperature and pressure environment of the gasifier. Tars can make downstream processing of the syngas more difficult and may result in excessive process train down-time.

RDF heat content depends on the amount of moisture and combustible organic material. RDF typically has less variability than does MSW, which can vary greatly when looking at a small sample. This is important for gasification due to the need to optimize gasifier conditions for specific fuel compositions. To reduce residence time in the gasifier, RDF is shredded to a smaller size. This shredding also serves the purpose of uniformly distributing the various materials, giving the RDF a more stable composition, in addition to decreasing the moisture content of the RDF.

2

Plastics and rubber are materials with the highest heating values in MSW, with food and yard waste being the lowest.

The following figure shows the heating values of various fuels including MSW.

Metal and glass must be removed from the MSW as it is pre-processed into RDF in order to increase the heating value of the feedstock and avoid gasifier operational problems. In communities with recycling programs, costs associated with removing these materials will be minimized, giving waste gasification the greatest opportunity for success. The systems used for RDF production usually use a combination of size reduction, screening, magnetic separation and density separation to remove the non-combustible materials from the MSW such as metal and glass.

The following table shows typical RDF requirements for feed to a gasifier.

3

The syngas product of waste gasification contains tars, particulates, halogens, heavy metals, and alkaline compounds that need to be removed before the gas is used for power generation. More elaborate syngas cleanup systems may be required as compared with systems using coal or biomass as fuel.

 

Gasifiers for Waste
All of the main types of gasifiers can be adapted to be used with various waste types as feedstock, but plasma gasification is getting a lot of interest in connection with treatment of MSW in particular. In plasma gasification, the plasma (ionized gas at high temperature which conducts a strong electrical current) allows extremely high gasification temperatures of 4,000ºC to over 7,000 ºC. These high temperatures completely break down toxic compounds to their elemental constituents, making them easily neutralized, and the gas is mixed with oxygen and steam inside the gasifier. The organic compounds in the fuel are converted to syngas, similar to the other gasification technologies, and any residual materials are captured in a rock-like mass which is highly resistant to leaching. With this technology, all known contaminants can be easily contained, making it ideal for MSW applications where feedstock composition is sometimes unclear. Also, after the initial electricity required at startup for the plasma gasifier, these systems are self-sustained by running off the electricity produced by firing the syngas in a gas turbine.

The challenges for plasma gasification are mainly in convincing the public that it works on MSW. Syngas cleanup processes, and oxygen separation methods could be improved to make the economics look better, similar to the other types of gasification, but public perception is the real deterrent to market penetration. More experience with operating the technology in the United States and on MSW in particular would go a long way toward making plasma gasification a component of a sensible waste management program in the United States.

Many companies have developed waste gasification technology. For more information follow the links below:

1.
 
Municipal Solid Waste Generation, Recycling, and Disposal in the United States: Facts and Figures for 2010
2.
 
Production of Refuse-Derived Fuel
3.
 
Gasification: An Alternative Process for Energy Recovery and Disposal of Municipal Solid Wastes

 

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Sewage

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Black Liquor

Industrial Waste
An example of an industrial waste stream where gasification can be used to improve process efficiency is black liquor produced in the paper industry. Black liquor is a waste stream produced when lignin is removed for wood chips as part of the paper production process. An IGCC system can be used to convert this waste stream into electrical energy for use within the paper plant. Gasification in this case provides efficient use of the black liquor, but also can be designed to handle other paper process wastes. Gasification will continue to find niches in various industries as more research and development is done in the future.

How much black liquor can a papermaking facility produce? Processes and facilities vary, but a typical pulp mill will produce 250-400 gallons of black liquor per ton of pulp, most of which is consumed onsite to produce energy.

Is using black liquor for fuel good for the environment? Yes. Using black liquor to fuel mills avoids fossil fuel use and is highly efficient. Black liquor is a carbon-neutral biomass-based fuel that results in no net increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This is because the carbon in black liquor was originally extracted from the atmosphere and its release during fuel use mimics the same natural cycle that occurs in the forest when trees decompose and release their carbon.

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   Biomass Preparation

http://westsalem.com/    https://www.bionomicind.com/    http://tappi-ibbc.org/program/     http://www.conversiontechnology.com/  
 
Nuclear Electricity to Pyrolyze Biomass to extract Carbon-neutral CO2 from plants plus Nuclear Thermochemical Hydrogen from water are the feedstocks to make Advanced Biofuels

 

 

Wood Pellets

Chinese Built Biomass Processing Equipment
(Notice the size of the electric motor.)

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Footnotes & Links

This facility would be defined by local and national building and electrical codes, and supplemented by constraints from the relevant equipment manufacturers.

Black pellets - A replacement for fossil coal in power plants
http://www.valmet.com/media/articles/biofuels-and-biomaterials/black-pellets---a-replacement-for-fossil-coal-in-power-plants/ 

Algae Racetracks?

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This website is still a draft. The candidate document's footnote numbers go with a private database. Copy the document's title and submit it to Google. The document may still be posted on the Internet.

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News Notes

 

EPA Declares Burning Wood Is Carbon Neutral.

The Hill (4/23, Green) reports the EPA yesterday “declared” that “burning trees is carbon neutral.” EPA Administrator Scott Pruitt made the announcement “during a meeting with Georgia forestry leaders.” The declaration “signals an administrative policy shift that will treat all burning of biomass as carbon-neutral ‘when used for energy production at stationary sources,’ according to an EPA statement.”

        The Washington Post (4/23, Mooney, Grandoni) reports Pruitt said, “Today’s announcement grants America’s foresters much-needed certainty and clarity with respect to the carbon neutrality of forest biomass.” However, “the idea that biomass is carbon neutral is contentious among scientists, who fear that forests, once cleared so their wood can be used for energy, may not grow back as planned.”

        The Washington Examiner (4/23, Siegel) reports the agency “says it will consider biomass as carbon neutral when devising regulatory actions on energy production from power plants, such as a potentially revised, more modest Clean Power Plan.”

 

28.700 ---------- SEWAGE and GARBAGE to VEHICLE FUELS - Municipal Dry Sewage Sludge
28.701 ----- Study On Sewage Sludge Gasification - Fluidized Bed Dryer
28.702 ----- Sewage Sludge Gasification
28.703 ----- Sewage Sludge - A Fascinating Feedstock For Clean Energy
28.704 ----- Agricultural Waste
28.709 ----- PLASCO - Plasma Biomass Municipal Waste
28.710 ----- Garbage In - MegaWatts Out - Plasma Anoxic Gasification
28.711 ----- Thermal methods of municipal waste treatment
28.712 ----- US 2012 Municipal Solid Waste – Garbage
28.713 ----- Sludge From A Sewage Treatment Plant As A Feasible Source Of Energy