Electricity from Nuclear & Fire from Biofuels

Climate Change is a chemistry problem.              Advanced Energy Systems in the face of Climate Change, Rising Energy Demand, and Legacy Infrastructure is the challenge.

Two very senior scientists with chemistry backgrounds, Dr. George A. Olah and Dr. Charles W. Forsberg, are both suggesting making CO2-neutral biofuels by using CO2 from the air.
Both cover the subject extremely well but in somewhat different ways.
Scientists dream great dreams . . . Engineers build them.  Neither Dr. Olah nor Dr. Forsberg are aware of, nor have any connection to, this web site.
Your author, an EE, is working to stop Climate Change by identifying and describing to the public the industrial equipment he thinks is needed to make Olah's and Forsberg's vision a reality.

Fossil fuel fires will disappear one way or another in the long run. Most of industrial civilization's electrical and heat energy will be supplied by a nuclear-hydrogen-biomass system.
Our heat will originate as nuclear fission, be stored in CO2-neutral biomass molecules made from air's CO2, and be released as it is now - as fire, as needed, by CO2-neutral combustion.

This web site describes how we can progress to the above image while still having the abundant disposable energy - both nuclear and combustion - necessary for living comfortably.
Dr. Forsberg's slides show how: Nuclear Hydrogen Biomass System - Slides - Dr Charles W. Forsberg .pdf    Nuclear Hydrogen Biomass System - Paper - Dr Charles W. Forsberg .pdf
Fortunately, we have all the nuclear fuel we will ever need , and a better way to dispose of nuclear's waste , and, best of all, the technologies to make it all happen already exist.
Conclusion: There is sufficient biomass to meet U.S. liquid-fuel needs if the energy and hydrogen inputs for biomass-to-fuel processing plants are provided by advanced nuclear energy.


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 What this web site is about. (Click to enlarge.):                            Stopping Climate Change  (17 slide presentation)

Every dot of light above is a city that could have as many as a hundred industrial-size coal burning boilers.  Globally, perhaps a million.
Whatever they are hooked on to might be repowered by SUV-size nuclear reactors, ending 1/3 of Climate Change.

These days, 'Hook-Ons' are upgrades of old coal power stations using jet engines and heat recovery steam generators.
Burning natural gas instead of coal, efficiency goes from 30% to 60%, CO2 emissions from 2,024 pounds per megaWatt-hour to 660 lb/mWh.
Much more electricity, much cheaper electricity, 1/3 the Climate-Changing emissions.  What's not to like?  Still not wind or solar cell clean.

Above is a photo of Tampa Electric Company's (TECO) Bayside plant after it's 7 turbine plus 7 heat recovery boiler upgrade. What is being suggested in this web site for the Taichung, Taiwan, coal power plant - the world's largest single source of CO2 - is similar to what TECO did in 2009: repower two fairly large old coal steam electricity generators (brown, left, light roof) with steam made by the exhaust blasts of seven new small natural gas powered jet engines (gray, mid right). Notice the long steam lines between the 7 jet engine heat recovery steam generators (HRSGs) and the 2 old steam turbines they are powering. 

The total installed renewable energy as of today is equal to the combined capacity of the nuclear power plants shut down in Japan and scheduled to close in Germany, making the challenge of carbon-free energy impossible to meet.

And this does not include additional nuclear plants scheduled to be shut down in the United States, Belgium, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland.

This madness must stop!

We must begin converting the world's largest coal boilers to nuclear.  It is possible - has been done before using 'Hook-Ons', safe, quick, and economic because only the boilers get changed and nuclear fuel is cheaper than coal. 

There are some darn good reasons this isn't happening already, but they aren't insurmountable. From what I can tell, the earliest we can expect to see the new molten salt reactors - the type and size I think could be used as 1,300F hook-on steam generators that could replace the defacto world-standard dual pressure, single temperature, Loeffler type coal boilers would be 2020 or slightly after. By 2025, there may be 10 companies world-wide
with a build and fuelling capability of several reactors a month producing more or less the same product for a global total of perhaps 520 reactors per year.

World-wide, there are about 1,200 mega-coal plants that are burning about 75% of all coal and making about 25% of all Climate Change.  Typically, each of these 1,200 power plants have four to six 500 megaWatt(e) generating units for a total of perhaps 6,000 generating units.  These are the mega-coal plants second and third world countries built in the 1980s after the environmentalists talked them out of building large nuclear plants under Eisenhower's "Atoms for Peace" program.  The world's remaining 50,000 or so small coal burning power plants are practically innocent bystanders.

The Supersized 1,200.  Who they are and where they are:   1200 Largest Coal Power Plants - Countries and Locations .xls  (spreadsheet @ 1.095)

ThorCon's offering is a typical example of what is coming down the pike for use as hook-ons - a tandem pair of 250 mW(e) reactors in underground cells with an adjacent pair of cool-down cells also in the ground. This means about 12,000 molten salt reactors will need to be built along with on-site construction of 12,000 running cells plus 12,000 cool-down cells. Spread over 25 years, this is well within the abilities of the world's industrial construction companies.   Check out the two hook-on projects linked below for conceptual sketches.


Project 1:  Converting Taichung, the world's largest source of carbon dioxide, to nuclear.  >

Project 2:  Barge mounted nuclear steam generator for large U.S. coastal coal power plant.  >

The Advanced Nuclear Energy Option.  >

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Disclaimer: This web site is energy talk by an engineer exploring Climate Change educational concepts, not professional engineering advice. contact  co