SkyScrubber.com       COOLING OUR PLANET                                                 Directory  Prolog  About
Posted on May 9, 2021 by JPH, a Time-Traveler from the Age of Analog.         A website focused on cooling our planet after Climate Change's growth has been stopped .        Scrubber: An apparatus for purifying air and gases.

Technologies:   1 Capitol Project: The Tools   2 Cooling Our Planet with Nuclear Power   3 Cooling Our Planet with BECCS Power   4 Cooling Our Planet with Geoengineering   5 The Class VI CO2 Disposal Well   6 Nuclear Desalination of Water   7 Nuclear Manufacture of Hydrogen

Nuclear, A Technology Strong Enough To Both Cool And Power Our Planet.

The most powerful climate changing machines at our disposal are the world's electricity power plants.  Let's use power plants to our advantage.
"The number of things that would have to happen to end the Climate Emergency without Direct Air Capture are so stretching and multiple it's highly unlikely we can meet the Paris Agreements without it" – Ajay Gambhir

Nuclear energy can scale up the production of reliable electricity to mitigate today's Climate Emergency while simultaneously removing legacy CO2 from the air to end Climate Change.
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Think About Thousands Of Nuclear Power Plants All Over The World Cooling Our Planet By Direct Carbon Capture and permanent Underground CO2 Storage.
  2 Cooling Our Planet with Nuclear Power   

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All Things Being Equal, Life Is Better In Energy-Rich Countries

           
https://www.worldometers.info/world-population/population-by-country/   

                                                    

"Higher incomes, and higher energy use, are the cure for population growth.  The world as a whole is well along in this transition.
Up until now, only one carbon-free energy source has proven able to scale up very quickly and - in the right conditions - affordably. That source is nuclear power."
 From "A BRIGHT FUTURE" by Joshua S. Goldstein and Staffan A. Qvist, . . .   https://www.publicaffairsbooks.com/?s=a+bright+future

There is a fundamental good in modern energy consumption, particularly for enabling industrialization, agricultural modernization, thus lifting people out of poverty.

In high-energy countries, women don't have to breed large numbers of children sentenced to spend their lives as uneducated, unpaid agricultural workers.

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What are the the Safest and Cleanest sources of Energy?

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The Relative Amounts Of Energy Sources Available And How They Are Being Used

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Who Is Doing The Best Job Of Avoiding CO2 Emissions?

                                      

                                                                                                                                                                       Currently, there are 440 reactors in operation in some 30 countries around the world.

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Given The Opportunity, Most Countries Would Max Out On Nuclear

      
Uranium energy is cheaper than any fossil energy.

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The World Now Has A Melt-Down-Proof Nuclear Fuel Rod

  https://www.ltbridge.com/lightbridge-fuel 

Lightbridge claims much better safety. refueling intervals, and power output on existing water-cooled reactors than obtainable from the current traditional 77 year old fuel rod design.

Lightbridge Sets Priorities for SMR Fuel Development

Lightbridge Corporation (NASDAQ:LBTR) has decided to prioritize developing fuel for future small modular reactors rather than fuel for large reactor designs, President and CEO Seth Grae said this

 week in a business update ahead of a webcast and conference call to discuss the company’s financial results.

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High-Level Nuclear Waste Disposal Boreholes

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deep_borehole_disposal 

https://www.energy.gov/ne/downloads/deep-borehole-disposal-research-demonstration-site-selection-guidelines-borehole-seals 

True Nuclear Waste will remain dangerously radioactive for a very long time.

There are thousands of nuclear waste storage containers near large power reactors all over the United States. Only several percent - a tiny volume - of fuel rods are actually consumed and are considered waste for disposal.

Reprocessing of spent fuel rod pellets will recover the 'reusable good stuff' from the true waste that must be sequestered for a thousand years. A typical old-fashioned pellet type (not the new metal Lightbridge type) used in almost all old large water-cooled reactor gets about six years of power out of the pellets before they must be removed from the reactor and reprocessed.

Deep underground borehole disposal of true reactor waste must be secure and cheap just like disposal of captured carbon waste.

Spent fuel is 95% non-fissile U-238, 3% fission products, i.e., true waste, 1% fissile U-235, and 1% plutonium.

                                   

"Note that some countries (e.g. France) do not consider spent fuel to be waste. Spent fuel comprises large amounts of recoverable uranium and plutonium that can be used in fast breeder reactor fuel. While fast breeder reactors are not deployed yet on a large-scale commercial basis, they are very much an option for the future for some countries, and so the uranium and plutonium within the spent fuel is considered a valuable resource. Poinssot et al [3.2-8] calculates the total amount of radioactive waste requiring geological disposal at about 1.5 m3/TWhe for the current French reactor fleet with plutonium recycled once in MOX fuel. This strategy reduces the amount of waste requiring geological disposal, which is almost an order of magnitude less than the amount shown in Figure 3.2-17. This reflects the fact that spent fuel elements (including spent MOX fuel elements) are not included in the waste stream in France.

In summary, there is no evidence that nuclear energy does more harm to the transition to a circular economy, including waste prevention and recycling, than other energy technologies included in the Taxonomy. However, with regard to radioactive wastes specifically, clearly nuclear energy produces larger quantities than other generation technologies. Radioactive waste and its management will be discussed in detail in Part B of this report."
 - - - Technical assessment of nuclear energy with respect to the 'do no significant harm' criteria of Regulation (EU) 2020852 ('Taxonomy Regulation'), JRC Science For Policy Report, 2020.

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Energy Density per Unit Mass Of Common Energy Sources

   

A Lithium Ion Battery is just barely off zero.

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The Cost Of Various Types Of Reactors
Actually, per kilowatt-hour, nuclear power is safer, environmentally cleaner, and cheaper than all other forms of commercial energy.

                                            

https://www.nuscalepower.com/
NuScale modular reactors are of a very small, water-cooled, walk-away naturally-safe design about 0.050 as powerful and costly as conventional modern reactors.

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 The Best Way To Get A "Running Start" For Building 'Repairing The Air' Reactors
 Is To Build Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) On Existing Coal Power Plant Sites
 

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There Is A Proposal Becoming Popular For
Reducing Climate Change
By Half From 420 ppm to 350 ppm As A Goal


The proposal is to suck the CO2 level back from today's 420 ppm to about 1990's 350 ppm:  Why 350? – MN350  https://350.org/

It may be possible to achieve the proposed 420 ppm to 350 ppm CO2 reduction task in a surprisingly short time.

"As of 2018, CO2 constitutes about 0.041% by volume of the atmosphere, (equal to 410 ppm) which corresponds to approximately 3210 gigatonnes of CO2, containing approximately 875 gigatonnes of carbon."

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Who Is Most Responsible For Climate Change's CO2
The world has about 195 countries.
Most countries are not responsible for very much Climate Change and should not have to contribute a lot of money toward ending Climate Change.  

                   The current "Top Twenty" modern (2015) contributors to Climate Change:                       

 

                           The cumulative (total) emitters of CO2 since the Industrial Revolution began.                 

 

                                                                                                       Who has the wealth to pay for 'Repairing the Air'?                                                            

 

                                                                                                     How wealthy are the individuals?  
 

1, Decarbonization is about ending the production of adding Climate Changing carbon dioxide (CO2) to the air. Deep Decarbonization means 80% decarbonization of our energy systems.
2, BECCS is a technology we can use to restore air to the way it has been since time immemorial by removing CO2 from the air (Repair the Air).
IPCC stands for United Nations International Panel on Climate Change, BECCS stands for Bio-Energy with Carbon Capture and Storage.
This website is about using biomass-powered BECCS to achieve Deep Decarbonization and Repairing the Air

To have a chance at limiting warming to 1.5°C and avoiding increasingly severe impacts from climate change, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concluded that global net anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions must fall by 45% from global 2010 levels by 2030 and reach net-zero by 2050.12 Hitting these targets will require a "rapid and far-reaching" transition across the economy that is "unprecedented in terms of scale."13 - from "The 2020 Democratic Party Climate Crisis Action Plan."

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87% Of The World's Energy Is Obtained As Heat

         

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Energy Consumption

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Climate Change Is Changing Business Plans

IHS Markit: GM announcement latest sign that peak gasoline demand from light vehicles has already come and gone

18 February 2021
The recent announcement by GM that it aspires to phase out sales of oil-powered light vehicles (LVs) by 2035 (earlier post)—part of a broader proposal to make the automaker a net-zero-carbon company—is a prominent signpost that oil demand from LVs has already peaked.

Shell outlines steps to net-zero business by 2050; to cut production of traditional fuels 55% by 2030 

Aims to use nature-based solutions (NBS), in line with the philosophy of avoid, reduce and only then mitigate, to offset emissions of around 120 million tonnes a year by 2030, with those used being of the highest independently verified quality.   Expects that its total carbon emissions peaked in 2018 at 1.7 gigatonnes per annum;   Confirms that its total oil production peaked in 2019. 
Shell serves more than 1 million commercial and industrial customers, and 30 million customers at 46,000 retail service stations daily.

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A More Detailed Look At The Carbon Content Of Common Combustion Fuels

 

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How Does Fire Work and How Does The Carbon In Fossil Fuels Get Into The Air?

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A More Detailed Look At How Planet Earth's CO2 ppm Level Controls Planet Earth's Temperature
Heat Conduction AWAY FROM PLANET EARTH IS AN INVERSE ppm RELATIONSHIP.      Chart: Radiative Heat Flux in Watts per Square Meter, i.e., 255 maximum heat flow outward to 215 minimum heat flow outward.

    
By removing air's CO2 using BECCS and other technologies, we can re-set the world's thermostat to wherever we like. . . . . .
The CO2 in the air acts like a blanket - the more CO2, the thicker the blanket. Taking CO2 out of the air is like taking a blanket off your bed - you feel the change quickly.

 

What jumps out at you is that Planet Earth is not temperature-stable and that tiny changes in temperature do huge damage to the critters that happen to be there at the time.

This Website has always been focused on stopping Climate Change and rolling back existing Climate Change's CO2 to the level mankind experienced at the end of the last Ice Age. The benign climate mankind has been living in for the last 15,000 years or so has been described by Climate Scientists as the 'Optimum Climate for man'. This climate made agriculture possible and enabled mankind to farm instead of living brief nomadic hunter-gatherer lives constantly on the very brink of starvation.

Changing climate is ending mankind's benign 'easy-living' climate period and now subsistence farmers, with their land more and more unproductive by climate changed weather, are beginning to become nomadic, moving ever-northward.

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Comments about this website

As it happens, this website will be emerging over the next several months in much the same manner as a blog. It will be the writings of a nuclear greenie engineer who has had several career encounters with Climate Change since the mid-1950s - before it was generally realized Climate Change existed - had a name, and, until the 1990s, was not considered an existential threat to humanity. While vague hints of long-term changes in the weather were detected as early as the mid-1800s but not realized as significant, the changes brought about Climate Change between 1990 and today have been startling. For the author, it's as if he has moved 200 miles south. The changes between today, 2030, 2040, and 2050 have the potential to be far more startling in both the climate we will experience and humanity's response to it. Now, scientists, policy makers and military analysts increasingly believe that climate change is also leading to destabilizing events like mass migrations, civil wars and other forms of unrest.

The inspiration for revising my 'Hobby Web Site' along it's present lines came from a paper written by David W. Keith, Geoffrey Holmes, David St. Angelo and Kenton Heidel entitled: "A Process for Capturing CO2 from the Atmosphere", by Keith et al., Joule 2, 1573-1594, Published by Elsevier Inc., August 15, 2018, © 2018 The Author(s). The excellent color pdf of the paper is available for downloading from the internet and is well worth obtaining.

The other pages on this website feature a few, but not all, of the other machines we will be applying to the problems of repairing and cooling the air and water over the remaining duration of modern civilization.

Your author is a retired electrical engineer with electrical experience in heavy industrial applications who is contemplating a CO2 sequestration variant of David Keith's basic idea suited for economical use within the context of electrical utilities in the 180 countries of the world having sub-trillion dollar-equivalent (a thousand billion) economies.

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